Ames Test The AMES procedure evaluates the mutagenic potential of test chemicals by their effect on five histidine requiring strains of the bacterium, Salmonella typhimurium in the absence and presence of a rat liver metabolising system.
Tetrahymena Thermophila Ocular Irritancy Test The basis of this test is that a cytotoxic chemical (regardless of site or mechanism of action) will interfere with the normal motility of the protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, in culture. The degree of interference of motility as compared to control cultures, related to the concentration of the test compound, provides an indication of toxicity.
Yeast Growth Rate Cytotoxicity Test The proliferation rate of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, may be regarded as an overall indicator of the physiological status of the cell. Therefore, the effect of various toxic substances on different cell functions will be reflected by changes in the rate of proliferation. It is possible to determine the toxicity of a test substance simply by measuring cell density.
Yeast Plasma Membrane H+ -ATPASE Toxicity Test Accumulation of lipophilic substances, many of which may be environmental chemicals, affects the membrane lipid order and consequently affects the functions of these proteins. Since, the function of important cellular proteins, such as the H+-ATPase strongly depends upon the integrity of the lipid bilayer, the activity of the H+-ATPase may be used as a sensitive indicator of the effect that a chemical may have on the viability of the cell.