Hamster Ovary Cell NA+/K+ -ATPase Test Accumulation of lipophilic substances in the plasma membrane may affect the membrane lipid order and consequently affect the function of these proteins. Changes in the activity of the Na+/K+ -ATPase, which is the major active transport system responsible for the electrochemical potential in mammalian cells, can therefore be an indication of the effect that a chemical may have on the viability of the cell membrane and possibly the whole cell.
Human Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity Assay Protocol This method measures the leakage of DNA and lactate dehydrogenase from lymphocytes into the surrounding medium as an indicator of cytotoxicity. This method also includes an assay of intracellular (mitochondrial) diaphorase as a measure of cellular activity (MTT assay).
In Vitro Micromass Teratogen Assay The effect of a test compound, in the presence and absence of S-9 mix, on the differentiation and growth of rat limb bud and CNS cells in vitro indicates whether it is potentially a teratogen in vivo.
Isolated Rat Glomeruli and Proximal Tubules The basis of this procedure is that two specific cell type preparations may be isolated, exposed separately to various compounds over a range of concentrations, and the cytotoxicity of these determined. Parameters deemed indicative of a cytotoxic effect include a reduction in de novo protein synthesis and decreased glucose and fatty acid metabolism. A cytotoxic effect may indicate that a chemical is likely to be nephrotoxic in vivo.
Lung Cell Assay Protocol Potential embryotoxicity is assessed by monitoring the effect of the test compound on total protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis in cultured human foetal lung fibroblasts. Rat lung epithelial cells can be used to determine cytotoxicity of select compounds because of their ability to metabolise xenobiotics.
Ovary Cell Proliferation Test The rate of cellular proliferation may be regarded as an overall indicator of the physiological status of the cell. Therefore, the effect of various toxic substances on different cell functions will be reflected by changes in the proliferation rate.
Rabbit Articular Chondrocyte Functional Toxicity Test In this test rabbit articular chondrocytes are cultured in the presence of test compound, the toxicity of which is then determined by its effect on the production of proteoglycan by the cells, as detected by the dye Alcian Blue.
Red Blood Cell Test System Protocol An in vitro red blood cell assay is presented which allows the estimation of the irritation potential of tensides and tenside containing materials such as shampoos, shower gels, cleaning products, etc. The estimation is based on the fact that surfactants interact strongly with cellular membranes and proteins. Both effects are measured photometrically by use of the inherent native dye, oxyhemoglobin.