Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)
It was thought that cells can grow only in one direction. From stem cells to mature cells, but now reverse is also becoming possible. Scientists started this work in 2006 in an effort to transfer or convert mature cells into embryonic stem cells.
In the first effort they just introduce the four transcription factors of stem cells and converted the mature cells into embryonic stem cells. Later they tested the properties of these cells and they found that these cells behave in the same way as those of embryonic stem cells. They analyze these cells in vitro and successfully made them to differenciate into all the three germ layer of cells.
Now this research work is further advancing and many laboratories in the world are trying to convert the mature cells into embryonic stem cells by using different ways i.e. expressing the stem cells transcription factors, expressing stem cells related miRNA, blocking the expression of mature cells miRNA and so on.
These cells that are converted back from mature cells to embryonic stem cells are called induced pluripotent stem cells and in short iPSC.