[Molecular Basis Of Cell and Developmental Biology] Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 Is Required for Maintenance of Ciliary Beating in Mice
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) maintain protein homeostasis through regulating expression of heat shock proteins, especially in stressed conditions. In addition, HSFs are involved in cellular differentiation and development by regulating development-related genes, as well as heat shock genes. Here, we showed chronic sinusitis and mild hydrocephalus in postnatal HSF1-null mice, which are associated with impaired mucociliary clearance and cerebrospinal flow, respectively. Analysis of ciliary beating revealed that the amplitude of the beating was significantly reduced, and ciliary beat frequencies were lower in the respiratory epithelium, ependymal cells, oviduct, and trachea of HSF1-null mice than those of wild-type mice. Cilia possess a common axonema structure composed of microtubules of - and β-tubulin. We found a marked reduction in - and ciliary βiv-tubulin in the HSF1-null cilia, which is developmentally associated with reduced Hsp90 expression in HSF1-null mice. Treatment of the respiratory epithelium with geldanamycin resulted in rapid reduction of ciliary beating in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Hsp90 was physically associated with ciliary βiv-tubulin, and Hsp90 stabilizes tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results indicate that HSF1 is required to maintain ciliary beating in postnatal mice, probably by regulating constitutive expression of Hsp90 that is important for tubulin polymerization.