Please respect that Moving Dimensions Theory is just a theory.

I look forward to feedback and insights regarding its logic.

Moving Dimensions Theory

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Questions Addressed by MDT:

Why is the speed of light constant in all frames?

Why are light and energy quantized?

How can matter display both wave and particle properties?

Why are there non-local effects in quantum mechanics?

Why does time stop at the speed of light?

How come a photon does not age?

Why are inertial mass and gravitational mass the same thing?

Why do moving bodies exhibit length contraction?

Why are mass and energy equivalent?

Why does time's arrow point in the direction it points in? Why
entropy?

Why do photons appear as spherically-symmetric wavefronts traveling
with the velocity c?

Why is there a minus sign in the following metric?
x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=s^2

What deeper reality underlies Einstein's postulates of relativity?

What deeper reality underlies Newton's laws?

What underlies the laws of Inertia?

Why does general relativity fail at short distances? Why does quantum
mechanics dominate at short distances?

Why have so many great minds, Einestin, Godel, Wheeler, Hawking, and
Penrose called for a new conception of time?

If at first the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it.
--Albert Einstein

If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.
--Isaac Newton

Max Planck, the father of quantum theory, felt that the pioneer
scientist must have "a vivid intuitive imagination, for new ideas are
not generated by deduction, but by artistically creative imagination."

An important scientific innovation rarely makes its way by gradually
winning over and converting its opponents: What does happen is that the

opponents gradually die out.
--Max Planck

Moving Dimensions Theory (MDT)
Today I am writing regarding Moving Dimensions Theory-a deeper model
for explaining diverse phenomena in both quantum mechanics and
relativity.

The General Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

The Specific Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions at the rate of c in quantized units of the Planck length.

Relativistic, classical, and quantum mechanical phenomena, as well as
time itself, are emergent properties of this fundamental principle.
Newton's laws, the principle of Inertia, Einstein's postulates, and
the inherent wave-particle duality of QM may be explained with this
model.

A FEW YEARS BACK
A few years back, while surfing a towering wave on the Outer Banks of
North Carolina, a beautiful thought occurred to me. Suppose the wave I
was riding represented a coordinate in a dimension. Then although I was

approaching shore, I was not moving in this dimension.

The dimension itself was moving with me-I was surfing the dimension.
In a flash I saw that that is why photons never age-they are moving
along with the fourth dimension, and thus stationary relative to it. In

another flash I saw that that is why a photon's space-time interval
is represented by a null vector, or a 0, no matter how far it travels.
Indeed Einstein stated that an object's velocity through space-time
was always c-even stationary objects are traveling at the velocity c
through time! How could this be, were it not for a fourth expanding
dimension, which matter could surf as photons, giving rise to our
notion of time? And so it is that Moving Dimensions Theory was born as
the wave crested and crashed about me, thundering on down, as I fought
to remain surfing amidst the foam, facing the setting sun silhouetting
the Hatteras light.

And the waves kept on crashing that night. The nonlocal EPR
paradox/effect could be explained by the underlying nonlocality of an
expanding fourth dimension. The equivalence of mass and energy, the
wave-particle duality of all light and matter, the constant speed of
light-it could all be understood via a single principle of Moving
Dimensions Theory: the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the
three spatial dimensions. MDT reached back thousands of years to
resolve Zeno's paradox, then voyaged forth to ease Godel's,
Einstein's, Hawking's, and Penrose's concerns with the
paradoxical nature of a block universe, and arrived in the present,
quelling the oft exaggerated conflicts between relativity and quantum
mechanics, and pointing the way to the future by accounting for
time's arrow and entropy herself. At long last GR and QM could be
married in theory as harmoniously as they are in nature with Moving
Dimensions Theory's simple postulate:

The General Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

The Specific Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions at the rate of c in quantized units of the Planck length.

Classical physics, quantum mechanics, and relativity descend from this
simple postulate. Light, and thus all energy, is quantized as the
dimension which transports it expands in a quantized manner. Light
travels at a constant velocity in all frames because velocity is
measured relative to time which is measured relative to the light that
is transported by the fourth expanding dimension. Thus both fundamental

constants h and c emerge from the fundamental nature of the expansion
of the fourth dimension relative to the three spatial dimensions. And
thus MDT provides a simple, unifying postulate accounting for the
classical, relativistic, and quantum mechanical properties of this
universe.

And it's always been simple postulates, as opposed to abstruse
mathematics and mythologies, that have furthered physics.

Moving Dimensions Theory Can Unify GR & QM:
By offering an underlying reality from where both branches of physics
emerge-an underlying reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative
to three spatial dimensions, MDT unifies relativity and quantum
mechanics not with indecipherable mathematical mythologies, but with a
simple postulate. MDT explains quantum mechanical effects such as
wave-particle duality, the EPR effect, and the quantization of light
and energy, as well as the two postulates of relativity: the speed of
light is constant in all inertial frames and the laws of physics are
the same for all inertial observers. MDT also explains relativistic
effects such as time dilation and length contraction. The beauty of
Moving Dimensions Theory is that it explains properties of quantum
mechanics and relativity in the deeper context of a unified framework,
opening a door to a deeper physical reality-the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

The Purpose of Physics
The purpose of physics has ever been to unify diverse physical
phenomena with simple postulates, laws, and formulas reflecting the
deeper physical reality. MDT unifies relativity and quantum mechanics
by positing that they are both emergent properties of moving
dimensions. MDT's simple postulate-the fourth dimension is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions-offers the first
satisfactory explanation of the Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) effect
and the nonlocal behavior inherent to the math and physical reality of
quantum mechanics. Time itself is viewed not as the fourth dimension,
but as an emergent phenomena arising from the expansion of the fourth
dimension relative to the three spatial dimensions. This logic
alleviates a confusion of time with an actual fourth dimension where
one can travel back and forth at will, thus addressing Godel's,
Einstein's, Hawking's, Barbour's, and Penrose's concerns about
frozen time, and accounting for time's relentless arrow, the second
law of thermodynamics, and entropy.

This is but a brief treatment of a much larger project.

The General Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

The Specific Postulate of Moving Dimensions Theory:
The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions at the rate of c in quantized units of the Planck length.

and relativity, including the following:

The Constant Velocity of Light:
Light travels with constant velocity of c, because the fourth dimension

is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c.

Light, or energy, is matter rotated completely into the expanding
fourth dimension, orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions. No matter

how fast a spaceship is traveling, when it turns its lights on, the
light can only propagate as fast as the expanding fourth dimension can
carry it.

The Constant Velocity of Light in All Inertial Frames:
The velocity of light is always measured relative to the velocity of
time, and the velocity of time is always measured relative to the
velocity of light. This tautology assures us that the velocity of light

will always be the same for all observers in all inertial frames, as
the velocity of light is being measured relative to the velocity of
light in that frame. However, as demonstrated by experiments, time and
light travel slower close to gravitational masses, when measured from
distant frames.

What is Time?
Time is an emergent property of the underlying reality that a fourth
dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. All
our measurements of time are based on the emission and propagation of
photons, and all photons propagate by surfing the expanding fourth
dimension. So it is that time inherits properties of the fourth
dimension, but time is not the fourth dimension.

Too many physicists have extended dimensional properties to the notion
of time, rather than realizing that time is an emergent property tied
closely to a fourth expanding dimension. Because our notions of time
are linked to change, and because all change is linked to the emission
and propagation of photons, and because all photons propagate in the
expanding fourth dimension, time has naturally been confused with the
fourth dimension. Because the fourth dimension is expanding in
quantized units, macroscopic objects never make it any deeper into the
fourth dimension than a quantum unit.

Einstein On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
In On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Einstein wrote, "Examples
of this sort, together with the unsuccessful attempts to discover any
motion of the earth relatively to the 'light medium,' suggest that
the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no
properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest." There is no
frame of absolute rest, because the fourth dimension is expanding at a
constant rate equally in all directions. No relative motion of the
earth was ever discovered relative to the 'light medium,' because
the light medium is the fourth dimension which is expanding equally in
all directions. All of our notions of velocity are measured with
respect to time, and all our notions of time are wed inherently to the
propagation of energy, which is only propagating because it surfs the
crest of the expanding fourth dimension.

Einstein continues, "They suggest that, as already has been shown to
the first order of small quantities, the same laws of electrodynamics
and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the
equations of mechanics hold good. We will raise this conjecture (the
purport of which will hereafter be called the "Principle of
Relativity") to the status of a postulate, and also introduce another
postulate, which is only apparently irreconcilable with the former,
namely, that light is always propagated in empty space with a definite
velocity c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting
body. These two postulates suffice for the attainment of a simple and
consistent theory of the electrodynamics of moving bodies based on
Maxwell's theory for stationary bodies. The introduction of a
"luminiferous ether" will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the
view here to be developed will not require an 'absolutely stationary
space' provide with special properties, nor assign a velocity-vector
to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take
place." Again, there is no ether in the classical sense, but there is
a fourth dimension that is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions at the constant rate of c in units of the Planck length.

Time Dilation
As one approaches the velocity of light, one catches up with the
fundamental expansion of the fourth dimension, and there is a smaller
chance for a photon being emitted without being reabsorbed in any
process. The expanding fourth dimension is what carries photons away,
allowing the electro-chemical transitions that underlie all clocks, be
they mechanical, biological, or electronic. Thus time slows for the
moving clock, as all time, be it an unwinding clock spring,
oscillations in a quartz crystal, or a beating heart, rely on the
emission of photons. All photons propagate by surfing the crest of the
expanding fourth dimension, and as any object catches up with the
expanding dimension, as it is rotated more into the expanding fourth
dimension, there is less of a chance that a photon can be emitted to
foster the physical change that constitutes aging, and time slows.

Surfing the Fourth Dimension:
A Photon as a Spherically Expanding Wavefront:
A photon expands through space in a spherically symmetric manner
because the fourth dimension is expanding through the three spatial
dimensions in a spherically symmetric manner. A photon "surfs" the
crest of the expanding fourth dimension.

Time is not a Dimension:
In certain cases Einstein and other physicists extended the metaphor of

dimensions too far to time. For time is not a dimension. Time is
consciousness of change, replete with past, present, and future, and
cause and effect. The past and future exist only in our minds, one the
record of events, and the second a creation of what could be, based on
our powers of inductive reasoning, inspiration, and dreams. There is
one present for the universe, and although it might be measured
differently, there is one absolute present. At every point throughout
the universe the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions. Every tiny point of the fourth dimension is
becoming a tiny sphere with a radius of the Planck length, and every
tiny point on that tiny sphere is becoming a tiny sphere in its own
right. A photon surfs the edge of this expansion, riding the crest,
appearing as a spherically-symmetric wavefront, expanding throughout
the three spatial dimensions.

Lorentz Contraction:
Relativistic length contraction (Lorentzian Contraction) is always
accompanied by an increase in velocity, as the probability that each
quantum of the object resides in the time dimension is increased.
Relativistic length contraction can be accounted for by the fact that
as an object gains velocity its probabilistic wave function, is rotated

more into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light the

object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely orthogonal to
the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a particle
is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability that the
time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in essence
leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial dimension.

QFT:

The Equivalence of Mass and Energy:
Energy and mass are equivalent, expressed by E=mc^2, because the only
difference between mass and energy is the degree to which the matter
exists in the fourth dimension that is expanding at the rate of c
relative to the three spatial dimensions. When matter is rotated into
the expanding dimension, it is carried along at the velocity c relative

to the three spatial dimensions, and appears as photons. Thus all rest
mass has the potential to liberate immense amounts of energy by
existing in the expanding fourth dimension, surfing the expanding
dimension as photons.

Wave-Particle Duality:
Wave-particle duality is the result of the universe's existence upon
a reality that has three stationary spatial dimensions and one
expanding dimension. Freely traveling photons are the extreme case of
matter that exists completely in the expanding fourth dimension,
orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions. When a freely traveling
photon interacts with a measurement device in the stationary
dimensions-when it blackens a grain in a photographic plate-it
ceases being a wave and is manifested as a particle with a definitive
locality as its wave function collapses. When matter exists in the
expanding fourth dimension, it is seen as wave, or a photon, or energy.

Depending how and when we choose to observe matter determines whether
we observe its wave or particle properties. Photons are quantized
bundles of energy that propagate at the velocity of c-this is because
photons represent matter rotated into the fourth dimension which is
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions in a quantized
manner, in units of Planck's length at the rate of c.

Philosophical and Physical Barriers to Moving Dimensions
Many trained physicists have a knee-jerk reaction that the time
dimension cannot be moving because "dimensions cannot move." First
off, since the universe is expanding, space-time is also expanding,
demonstrating that dimensions are moving and expanding. Secondly,
general relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp space-time,
meaning that as a massive object moves though space-time, it stretches
space-time, showing again that space-time in one area can move, or
deform, relative to space-time in another area. GR is a sound theory,
backed up with multiple high-profile experiments, including the
demonstration that starlight is bent by the sun and the verification
that orbiting stars radiate energy in the form of gravity waves. Thus
there exist neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept
of moving dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds.

A curious sign of the times is that physicists will accept on blind
faith the existence of ten, twenty, or thirty dimensions, dimensions
that are curled up, or too small to measure, and yet they will reel in
shock and horror at a perfectly obvious postulate-the fourth
dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

They are to be forgiven-it has been a long time since a simple
postulate has been offered in the realm of physics, and the foreign
nature of truth's simple beauty is seen as a violent affront to the
String Theorist's convoluted sensibilities.

The Mysterious Minus Sign in The Metric

Consider the metric for a space-time interval:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=s^2

Consider the metric for a photon, which travels at the speed of light.

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0

Supposing that it is traveling along the x direction, we can write:

x^2-c^2t^2=0

x^2=c^2t^2

x=ct

Now let us ask a question, as we must certainly be free to ask
questions if we are to further physics. For a photon, how is the x
coordinate changing relative to the time coordinate? Would not the
answer just be the slope of the line in x=ct?

dx/dt=c

And so it is that for the photon-for all photons-the x coordinate
is changing at the rate of c relative to the t coordinate.

But no matter how far the photon travels in space, it will have moved
the same distance in space-time-0-not at all-the null vector.
This is because the time coordinate itself is moving, or more correctly

I should state that this is because the fourth dimension which carries
photons at the rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions is
expanding at the rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions,
and the propagation of photons/energy gives rise to our notions of
time. Remember that all time is based on the transportation of energy,
or the propagation of photons, so that our notion of time and clocks is

inherently wed to the fact that photons propagate at the rate of c
relative to the three spatial dimensions, which is inherently wed to
the fact that a fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions. Thus it makes sense that time does not pass for the

photon, and too, it makes sense that the distance a photon travels
through space-time is defined as the null vector.

Rather than just accepting the minus sign in front of the c^2t^2 as
being there because it "just is there," MDT aims to look at the
deeper reality which gives rise to the minus sign. A physicist's job
is not to accept things on blind faith, nor only ask questions that are

allowed to be asked, but a physicist's job is to wonder freely-to
roam and range upon the frontiers of logic and reason. And that wonder,

which seems all but forgotten in the bureaucratization of modern
physics, with its billions of dollars for elegant fabrications woven
from string theories which yet leave the Emperor naked, leads to the
deeper beauty. "Imagination is more important than knowledge," was
how Einstein put it.

The Collapse of the Wave Function:
The collapse of the wave function is also known as an irreversible
process, or a measurement, akin to a photon blackening a grain in
photographic film, or a photon being measured in front of one slit or
the other in a double-slit experiment, whereupon the interference
pattern disappears because the slit is ascertained, the wave has
collapsed, and the matter exhibits particulate behavior. Before it was
measured, the photon expanded through space as a spherically-symmetric
wave front, as it was matter surfing the expanding fourth dimension,
which is expanding through space in a spherically-symmetric manner.
Until the photon interacts with matter, or a measurement device in the
lab, the photon has equal probability of existing anywhere upon the
crest of the spherically symmetric wavefront, and thus it appears to
travel all paths-a physical reality Feynman took advantage of his
"many paths" formulation of quantum mechanics.

As Huygen's principle states that each point on an expanding
spherical wavefront is itself an expanding spherical wavefront, the
photon also has a probability of appearing earlier along on its
journey, or somewhere upon a smaller sphere centered upon its point of
origination. But over time the probabilities average out such that the
photon surfs along with the crest of the expanding fourth dimension,
and it appears to travel at the constant rate of c.

The collapse of the wave function is what happens when matter changes
its rotation relative to the time dimension. All measurements entail a
transfer of energy, and all measurements thus entail photons leaving
the expanding fourth dimension and being trapped in matter that is
stationary in an inertial lab frame. Perhaps this is why photons exert
no gravity while propagating freely, but do add gravitational mass
after their wave functions have collapsed, when they are trapped by
electrons within lab measurement apparatuses or photographic film.

The EPR Effect & Nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics:
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect (EPR) effect, which calls
instantaneous action at a distance "spooky," can be accounted for
by the intrinsic nonlocality of an expanding fourth dimension. As a
point expands into a tiny sphere in the fourth dimension, it is yet a
single locale in that dimension, and hence though two initially
interacting particles are separated in the spatial dimensions, they may

yet exist in the same place in the time dimension, and hence be
connected before they're measured-before the wave function
collapses. Quantum Mechanics exhibits nonlocal properties because the
fourth dimension exhibits nonlocal properties, as it is expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions.

Please see the dialogue with Penrose later on.

The Photon's Null Vector
The null vector of the photon, which remains 0 no matter how far or
fast the photon travels in space-time, may be accounted for by the fact

that the fourth dimension is moving, and thus the only way to stay
still in the four dimensions with an effective null movement, is to
move along with, or "surf" the expanding fourth dimension.

The Ageless Photon
A photon does not age. No time passes for a photon. This is because
although a photon travels with the velocity c, it stays at the exact
same place in the fourth dimension as it surfs the expanding fourth
dimension. How else, other than with a moving fourth dimension, can we
explain that the only way to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is

to move at the velocity of c relative to the three spatial dimensions?
And how else, but with a moving fourth dimension, can we explain that
any object stationary in the three spatial dimensions is moving with a
velocity of c relative to the fourth dimension?

Time is an Emergent Phenomena of Moving Dimensions-It is Not a
Dimension
Einstein's, Penrose's (and many leading physicist's) mistaken view
of "the future being out there" in a block universe arises because
physicists misleadingly label "time" the fourth dimension, thus
implying that just as we can move anywhere in the three spatial
dimensions, such as up and down and back again, so too can we move
anywhere in the time dimension, to the past, the future, and back
again, implying that both the past and future must exist, as sure as
New York and Los Angeles.

But time is not so much the fourth dimension as it is an emergent
phenomena that arises because a fourth dimension is expanding at the
rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions in a spherically
symmetric manner in units of the Planck length.

Einstein was Right:
Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that it is moving through time at the rate of c. Rotate it towards the
y axis, and its projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still
appears to be stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time
at the rate of c, meaning that it is still traveling at the rate of c
through time, as it is stationary in space. Rotate it into the time
dimension instead of into the y dimension, and its projection along the

x axis still shortens (Lorentz contraction), but now it begins to move
through the three spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed

of c through space-time. Again, we see it propagate faster through the
three spatial dimensions as it is rotated into the fourth "time"
dimension (via a boost) because the fourth dimension is moving relative

to the three spatial dimensions.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the fourth
"time" dimension without that object's velocity through the three
stationary dimensions changing. Thus the time dimension itself must be
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions. Another way of
looking at this is asking, "Why must something always gain a greater
velocity through space when it is rotated into the fourth "time"
dimension?" If someone can conduct a Lorentz transformation on a
ruler, and rotate it into the fourth dimension without its velocity
augmenting through the three spatial dimensions, I would very much like

to hear about it.

Brian Greene's Treatment-The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to
the Spatial Dimension

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau), where

tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be
c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an
object's speed through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be
accompanied by a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed
through time, which also may be considered the rate at which time
elapses on its own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with
that on our stationary clock dt."

Here again we see that even a stationary object has the velocity of c
through space-time. How can a stationary object have such a high
velocity? This is because the fourth dimension is expanding relative to

the three spatial dimensions at all points. So a stationary object will

see photons being carried away upon the crests of the expanding
dimension, at the rate of c, and this will be interpreted that that
object is aging, or moving through time at the rate of c, although in
reality the object itself never goes much deeper than the Planck length

into the expanding fourth dimension. Again, time is not the fourth
dimension, but it is an emergent property of an expanding fourth
dimension.

The Movement of All Objects That Exist More in Time:

In Lorentzian Transformations, there is no way for an object to be
rotated into the time dimension without it moving-this can be
explained by the fact that the time dimension is expanding.

The Debate Over the Block Universe: MDT To the Rescue:

Again we see quantum mechanics and relativity at odds over the debate
of the block universe implied by relativity, which seems to imply a
definitive, real future, which seemingly contradicts quantum
mechanic's inherent randomness and free will. MDT resolves this
paradox by viewing time not as the fourth dimension, but as a phenomena

that emerges because the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the
three spatial dimensions. Because all time is measured via the
propagation of photons, and because all photons propagate as matter
carried along by the expanding fourth dimension, time has oft been
ascribed properties of a fourth dimension similar to the three spatial
dimensions, resulting in paradoxical, misleading interpretations of the

universe. Suffice it to say MDT sees time not as a dimension, but as an

emergent property of a fourth dimension expanding relative to three
spatial dimensions.

In their paper concerning the paradoxes outlined above, "The Debate
over the Block Universe," Isham, C.J. and J.C. Polkinghorne write:

[Only registered users see links. ]

"Proponents of the block universe appeal to special and general
relativity to support a timeless view in which all spacetime events
have equal ontological status. The finite speed of light, the light
cone structure, and the downfall of universal simultaneity and with it
the physical status of "flowing time" in special relativity result
in a heightened tendency to ontologize spacetime. The additional
arbitrariness in the choice of time coordinates in general relativity
makes flowing time physically meaningless. Thus no fundamental meaning
can be ascribed to the "present" as the moving barrier with the
kind of unique and universal significance needed to unequivocally
distinguish "past" from "future." Instead the flowing present
is a mental construct, and four-dimensional spacetime is an
"eternally existing" structure. God may know the temporality of
events as experienced subjectively by creatures, but God cannot act
temporally, since flowing time has no fundamental meaning in nature.
Theologians must accept the Boethian and even gnostic implications of
the block universe."

[Only registered users see links. ]

Isham and Polkinghorne continue: "Opponents of the block universe
begin by distinguishing between kinematics and dynamics. Special
relativity imposes only kinematic constraints on the structure of
spacetime. The dynamics of quantum physics and chaos theory encourages
a view of nature as open and temporal, thus allowing for both human and

divine agency. The problem of the lack of universal simultaneity is
lessened since simultaneity is an a posteriori construct.
Philosophically disposed to critical realism, opponents are wary of the

incipient reductionism of the block view. They resist the Boethian
implications of relativity, and argue instead that divine omnipresence
must be redefined in terms of a special frame of reference, perhaps one

provided by the cosmic background radiation. God's knowledge of
spacetime events in terms of this frame of reference will be
constrained by both the world's causal sequence and the distinction
between past and future. Similarly God's actions will be consistent
with relativity theory."

[Only registered users see links. ]

In MDT, both quantum mechanics and relativity are in perfect harmony,
but the time in relativity is not a dimension on equal footing with the

three spatial dimensions. Rather, time is an emergent parameter arising

from matter (photons) being carried along with a fourth dimension that
is expanding at a constant rate relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

Time's Arrow / 2nd Law of Thermodyamics / Entropy

Entropy states that the universe tends towards disorder. This is
because the fourth dimension is expanding in a spherically symmetric
manner, constantly carrying all initially close photons and particles
away from one another-thus a drop of food coloring in a pool is
carried outward and evenly distributed as time evolves. Because the
fourth dimension is expanding as a spherically symmetric wavefront
through the three spatial dimensions, photons, as well as all matter
that interacts with photons, exhibits a probability to move in a
spherically symmetric manner. Thus, if we have a clump of atoms in the
middle of a room, a probability exists for the atoms to spread apart in

a spherically symmetrical manner, being carried along by the expanding
time dimension.

Traveling Backwards in Time:

The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions. The expansion appears as a spherically-symmetric wave-front

propagating throughout the three spatial dimensions. This is the prime
mover-the fundamental source of all time, energy, and motion. When
matter exists completely in the fourth dimension, it appears as a
photon, expanding in a spherical wave-front relative to the three
spatial dimensions. Now Huygen's Principle shows that each point upon
the crest of a spherically symmetric wavefront is itself a spherically
symmetric wavefront. That means that there is a finite probability that

a photon's spherical wavefront will collapse into a smaller region,
in which case it might be measured to be somewhere where it was. Such a

photon may be said to be traveling back in time, and such a photon will

have traveled less than the speed of light.

On the quantum scale, where the fourth dimension is expanding in units
of the Planck length, there is a higher chance of light being measured
to move slower or faster than the speed of light-there is a higher
chance of a photon traveling backwards, or its expanding wave front
getting a little smaller as opposed to bigger, but over large distances

the speed of light is determined to be c.

And just like photons, electrons and other particles may from be seen
to go back in time. All this means is that their wave functions are
surfing a region of the fourth-dimension which is contracting as
opposed to expanding-there is a small probability of this happening,
due to Huygen's principle, as elaborated on above.

But time travel on a macroscopic scale is prohibited, as the past and
future do not exist. We do not live in a block universe, wherein time
is a dimension, but rather time is an emergent phenomena, accounted for

with MDT's postulate: the fourth dimension is expanding relative to
the three spatial dimensions.

Godel's Block Universe Paradox Resolved

In 1949 Godel published a paper showing that within the theory of
relativity, time as we understand it, does not exist. Einstein
recognized Godel's paper as "an important contribution to the
general theory of relativity," and since then physicists have not
been able to find any logical shortcomings in Godel's work, and
nobody has been able to account for the existence of time. But the
Theory of Moving Dimensions accounts for time as we know it by showing
that it is an emergent property of the underlying dimension's
intrinsic relative movement.

Godel wrote, "By making a round trip on a rocket ship in a
sufficiently wide course, it is possible in these worlds to travel into

any region of the past, present, and future, and back again, exactly as

it is possible in other worlds to travel to distant parts of space.
This state of affairs seems to imply an absurdity. For it enables one
to travel into the near past of those places where he himself lived.
There he would find a person who would be himself at some earlier
period of life. Now he could do something to this person, which, by his

memory, he knows has not happened to him."

Kaku writes, "Kurt Godel's essay constitutes, in my opinion, an
important contribution to the general theory of relativity, especially
to the analysis of the concept of time. The problem here involved
disturbed me already at the time of the building up of the general
theory of relativity, without my having succeeded in clarifying it...
The distinction "earlier-later" is abandoned for world-points which
lie far apart in a cosmological sense, and those paradoxes, regarding
the direction of the causal connection, arise, of which Mr. Godel has
spoken. . . It will be interesting to weigh whether these are not to be

excluded on physical grounds." -Michio Kaku

The mistake Einstein made in his formulation was confusing time itself
with the fourth dimension. Time is an emergent property that we witness

because of the fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial

dimensions, and because it thus inherits properties of a dimension, it
is all too tempting for physicists to refer to time as a dimension.

Time travel is impossible both in reality and Moving Dimensions theory,

though I encourage prominent physicists to keep on writing books about
time machines and bookstores to stock them in the science-fiction
sections.

Time arises from the interaction of the expanding fourth dimension with

the three spatial dimensions, but many physicists mistakenly labeled
the fourth dimension as the time dimension.

A lot of confusion has arisen by from this mislabeling coupled with the

physicists' tendency to over-extend metaphors. As soon as physicists
mistakenly labeled the fourth dimension the time dimension, they were
eager to see it as an entity analogous to the three spatial dimensions,

where one can get from any point to any other point.

But time is an emergent property deriving from the expansion of a
single spatial dimension relative to the three other stationary spatial

dimensions. The fourth dimension expands in units of the Planck length
at the rate of c, so in a sense the fourth dimension is only ever
Planck's length deep to all macroscopic objects. Only a photon can
exist in this dimension, orthogonal to the three dimensions, and at
that point a photon is matter surfing the expanding dimension.
Huygen's principle demonstrates that every point along a spherically
symmetric wavefront is the source of a spherically symmetric wave, and
so it is with a photon. This is because every point in space-time is
the source of a spherically symmetric expansion of the fourth dimension

relative to the three stationary dimensions.

Time travel to any significant degree is impossible because the time
dimension never reaches deeper than Planck's length. You could only
go back in time by Planck's time, which wouldn't be very useful!

Physicists enjoy viewing the time dimension on equal footing with the
spatial dimensions. After all, they say it is just another a
"dimension" that just happens to have a minus sign infront of it in
the space-time metric. But they never seek to explain the minus sign.
Instead they rush straight ahead into all their ridiculous notions of
time travel, stating that just as we can get from any point A to any
point B in space, we can get from any point A to any point B in time.
But time travel has never been accomplished, nor will it ever be.

Physicists were right in recognizing that time is a dimension, but they

fell short in recognizing that it was different from the three spatial
dimensions in that it is expanding at the rate of c relative to the
three spatial dimensions.

The notion of past, present, and future is more related to the change
of energy than it is to the actual existence of a physical past, a
physical present, and a physical future. Only the present ever exists,
and the past is what is recorded in our minds-it exists nowhere else.

But because time is a dimension, physicists were seduced into believing

one could travel anywhere within it. But in reality we never get any
further than Planck's length deep in time, and it is at that depth
that photons surf through the universe, while electrons oscillate, and
out bodies maintain their average position firmly in the three spatial
dimensions as the time dimension expands relentlessly about us in units

of Planck's length.

"For Godel, if there is time travel, there isn't time. The goal of
the great logician was not to make room in physics for one's favorite
episode of Star Trek, but rather to demonstrate that if one follows the

logic of relativity further even than its father was willing to
venture, the results will not just illuminate but eliminate the reality

of time." -A World Without Time, Palle Yourgrau

Unification of QM and Relativity

Relativity becomes increasingly exact at long-length scales but fails
at short ones because space-time itself is quantized, as the time
dimension is expanding in units of the Planck length. The concept of
general relativity's smooth geometry, at large scales, disappears on
short-distance scales-this has been a problem to string theorists,
but only because they were never bold enough to recognize that's the
way it is because that's the way it is-GR does not break down at
distances smaller than the Planck length because such distances do not
exist with any degree of certainty. The fourth dimension is expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions in units of the Planck length,

and thus distances smaller than the Planck length cannot be measured
nor defined.

In An Elegant Universe, Brian Greene writes, "Recall that the problem
in merging general relativity and quantum mechanics turns up when the
central tenet of the former-that space and time constitute a smoothly
curving geometrical structure-confronts the essential feature of the
latter-that everything in the universe, including the fabric of space
and time, undergoes quantum fluctuations that become increasingly
turbulent when probed on smaller and smaller distance scales. On
sub-Planck-scale distances, the quantum undulations are so violent that

they destroy the notion of a smoothly curving geometrical space; this
means that general relativity breaks down."

But general relativity does not break down. It works perfectly well,
holding the planets in their orbits, curving space and time about
massive objects, bending light just so, in accordance with Einstein's
equations.

General relativity does not break down at sub-Planck-scale distances
because such distances do not exist. The fourth dimension is expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions in units of the Planck length,

and thus all physical measurements and physical definitions are larger
than the Planck length. General relativity need have no fear of ever
breaking down at distances smaller than the Planck length, because such

distances do not exist in the physical world!!

Moving Dimensions & String Theory

The jury is still out on String Theory, as is the theory itself. Before

it can be tested, it first must step forward with something to test.
String theory must first step forward with simple postulates and
laws-until that day, it will remain a hoax to the degree it is
funded.

Whereas String Theory retreats into realms beyond physical reality,
beyond experimental tests, beyond postulates, laws, and predictions,
Moving Dimensions Theory stays simply wedded to a single
postulate-the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions. Where String Theory retreats into a mathematical
realm where postulates, laws, words, and physical intuition are blinded

so that politics and strategic faith might reign supreme, MDT seeks a
return to those simpler days of physics, where physics was reduced to
first principles.

Perhaps String Theory could find a new home as a subset of MDT, wherein

the vibrating strings are vibrating/surfing upon wavefronts of the a
fourth dimension that's expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

Zeno's Paradox

If you travel from point A to point B, you must travel half of the
distance to point B before traveling the complete distance. Now from
that point you must again travel half the remaining distance. If you
continue to do so (travel half the remaining distance) you will never
reach point B.

Extended to its logical conclusion, this reasoning implies that you
could never move in the first place.

But things move.

Motion is a fundamental part of the universe. And that is because it is

embedded within the four dimensions, which consist of three stationary
dimensions and one that is expanding with a velocity of c in a
spherically symmetric manner, in units of Planck's length, relative
to the three stationary dimensions.

Because the time dimension is expanding at a uniform rate equally in
all directions, every particle has a greater chance of being somewhere
different than where it currently is as time moves on. For every
particle is subject to the whims of this ever-expanding dimension.

Stephen Hawking's Block Universe: Wrong

Hawking writes, "Quantum theory introduces a new idea, that of
imaginary time. Imaginary time may sound like science fiction, and it
has been brought into Doctor Who [an English Star Trek]. But never the
less, it is a genuine scientific concept. One can picture it in the
following way. One can think of ordinary, real, time as a horizontal
line. On the left, one has the past, and on the right, the future. But
there's another kind of time in the vertical direction. This is called
imaginary time, because it is not the kind of time we normally
experience. But in a sense, it is just as real, as what we call real
time."

Hawking's logic succumbs to a common physical misinterpretation of
time. In stating, "One can think of ordinary, real, time as a
horizontal line. On the left, one has the past, and on the right, the
future," Hawking is confusing our notion of time that is an emergent
phenomena arising from a fourth dimension expanding relative to three
spatial dimensions with the fallacious view of time as a dimension, on
equal footing with space. Hawking's and Penrose's mistaken view of
"the future being out there" arises because of physicists
misleadingly labeling "time" the fourth dimension, thus implying
that just as we can move anywhere in the three spatial dimensions, such

as up and down and back again, so too can we move anywhere in the time
dimension, to the past, the future, and back again, implying that both
the past and future must exist, as sure as New York and Los Angeles.

Time is an emergent phenomena of a fourth dimension expanding relative
to the three spatial dimensions-thus time sometimes appears to have
dimensional properties. A Lorentz transformation can rotate an object
into the "time" dimension, and we can appear to travel through the
"time" dimension, but in both cases the time dimension is our
interpretation of physical events in a universe with a fourth dimension

that is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

All time is measured relative to the propagation of photons, and
because all photons propagates via surfing the fourth dimension that is

expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions, time has oft been
ascribed properties of a fourth dimension.

Peter Lynds' View of Time: Closer to MDT's Reality

In Peter Lynds' abstract to "Time and classical and quantum
mechanics: Indeterminacy vs. discontinuity," Lynds states, "It is
postulated there is not a precise static instant in time underlying a
dynamical physical process at which the relative position of a body in
relative motion or a specific physical magnitude would theoretically be

precisely determined. It is concluded it is exactly because of this
that time (relative interval as indicated by a clock) and the
continuity of a physical process is possible, with there being a
necessary trade off of all precisely determined physical values at a
time, for their continuity through time. This explanation is also shown

to be the correct solution to the motion and infinity paradoxes,
excluding the Stadium, originally conceived by the ancient Greek
mathematician Zeno of Elea. Quantum Cosmology, Imaginary Time and
Chronons are also then discussed, with the latter two appearing to be
superseded on a theoretical basis." (Lynds, Peter, Foundations of
Physics Letters, 16(4), 343-355, 2003)

This is because time is an emergent phenomena, arising because the
fourth dimension is expanding at a rate of c relative to the three
stationary spatial dimensions in unitis of the Planck length. There is
no precise time underlying a physical process because all measurements
of time are limited by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, as the
expansion of the fourth dimension, by which time is defined, is
occurring in quantized units of the Planck length.

Lynds sees that there is no precise time underlying a physical process
because he argues that to have a defined position with respect to time
would mean that a moving object would have to be frozen. However, this
never happens, because all motion takes place upon a backround where
time is not a dimension nor a parameter, but a device that we have used

as a tool to measure distance, interval, and motion as best we know
how. That this has led to paradoxes is no wonder, but the paradoxes are

resolved with viewing time not as a fourth dimension, but as an
emergent phenomena that rises because a fourth dimension is expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions in units of the Planck length,

and that it is this fourth dimension that carries photons by which all
measurements of time are made. Thus time is fundamentally quantum
mechanical in behavior, inheriting a probabilistic and quantized
nature, and when quantum mechanics manifests itself throughout the
macroscopic world, it is often deemed paradoxical.

MDT & Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle:

Because the fourth dimension is expanding in quantized units, and
because all measurements require energy which only ever propagates in
quantized units as all energy is the result of photons surfing the
expanding fourth dimension, there is an inherent limitation to the
detail of measurement, arising from the nature of the quantized
expansion of the fourth dimension relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

Newton's Laws, Inertia & The Conservation Laws:

The Law of Inertia: All objects conserve their relative rotation in
space-time. An accelerated objected is rotated more into the expanding
fourth dimension, resulting in an increased probability it will move
relative to the three spatial dimensions. This is accomplished by
adding photons to the object, thereby increasing its mass along with
the net object's (object+photons) probability of existing in the
expanding third dimension. A decelerated electron emits photons,
lowering its probability of being in the fourth expanding dimension, as

its velocity relative to the three spatial dimensions slows.

Probability/Rotation are Conserved:

Every entity has a probability of existing in both space and time. The
greater a probability an entity has of existing in time, the more
energy it will be observed to have from a stationary observer. Energy
is added to an object by the way of photons, and thus all additions of
energy to any object increase the objects mass.

Take an electron in a particle accelerator for example. As energy is
added to it, it circles the accelerator faster and faster and gains
more and more mass. The more photons that are added to it, the higher
the probability it exists in the time dimension. It is rotated into the

time dimension, and its time slows down as its effective length
contracts.

The probability of being in the space and time dimensions is a
conserved quantity, manifesting itself as the conservation of momentum
and energy. If no energy is added or subtracted, its momentum and
energy remain constant-its rotation in space-time remains constant.

As an object is given energy, the added photons give the net object a
higher probability of being in the time dimension, and thus it
propagates faster through the three spatial dimensions, as it
"surfs" upon crests of the expanding dimension through space-time.

Explanations of Dark Matter & Dark Energy

The Unification of Relativity & QM

Relativity is what generally emerges at great distances and high
speeds, and quantum mechanics generally emerges at tiny distances for
tiny objects. The quantized expansion of

THE QM, GR & MDT: A DIALOGUE WITH PENROSE ET. AL

Roger Penrose longs for Moving Dimensions Theory. Where he falls short
in the following discussion is where he states, "the future is out
there." The future is not out there. But where Penrose steers close
is in acknowledging, "I think we need a new way to look at time, not
either Quantum Mechanics or Relativity." MD Theory offers this new
way.

Time is an emergent phenomena. Time happens because a fourth dimension
is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

Moving Dimensions Theory offers a new way of looking at time underlying

both QM and SR a phenoma that emerges from the MD Theory: THE FOURTH
DIMENSION IS EXPANDING AT A RATE OF C RELATIVE TO THE THREE SPATIAL
DIMENSIONS IN QUANTIZED UNITS OF THE PLANCK LENGTH, GIVING RISE TO TIME

AND ALL QUANTUM MECHANICAL AND RELATIVISTIC PHENOMENA.

[Only registered users see links. ]

Penrose's mistaken view of "the future being out there" arises
because of physicists misleadingly labeling "time" the fourth
dimension, thus implying that just as we can move anywhere in the three

spatial dimensions, such as up and down and back again, so too can we
move anywhere in the time dimension, to the past, the future, and back
again, implying that both the past and future must exist, as sure as
New York and Los Angeles.

But time is not so much the fourth dimension as it is an emergent
phenomena that arises because a fourth dimension is expanding at the
rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions in a spherically
symmetric manner in units of the Planck length.

Dr. E has added to the following dialogue with Roger Penrose, showing
how Moving Dimensions Theory can unify the concept of time in SR and
QM-in fact all phenomena in SR and QM might be accounted for by
Moving Dimensions Theory. The original dialogue may be found here:

[Only registered users see links. ]

Roger Penrose : "I think there's always something paradoxical about
the way we seem to perceive time to pass and the way physics describes
time."

Dr. E: Moving Dimensions Theory alleviates this paradox by viewing time

as an emergent phenomena-something that arises because the fourth
dimension is expanding relative to the three stationary spatial
dimensions.

Roger Penrose : Space-time is certainly different stuff from space
because its 4 dimensional instead of 3-D (RP larfs!) which is a big
diff. Time really has to be brought into the picture; this one thing
which is space/time.

Physicist : Just imagine what this might be like: 3-D space implies a
volume, and you can move any where in that volume. Once you add time as

a 4th dimension, another axis, then this block of space/time would
contain within it past, present and future, all at once. Time is
frozen, all times exist together; so just as you can say "over here,
over there" in 3-D space, you can talk about "over then", in 4-D
space/time.

Roger Penrose : It's a way of looking at things if you like which
physically we seem to be forced into. I say physically from the point
of view of what the theory of rel. tells us. And Relativity is
remarkably well tested, I mean, 14 places of decimal, it's just
incredible. So we know that this theory does describe the universe to
an extraordinarily precise degree, so we have to take it seriously. And

that theory tells us that we have to regard space and time as one
thing, it's all out there, it's one thing. In the same sense that
space is out there, time is out there.

Dr. E: No-the past and future are not out there. There is indeed a
fourth dimension, and that dimension is expanding relative to the three

spatial dimensions at the rate of c in units of the Planck length. We
perceive time-the past and the future-as events and dreams in our
memories and minds, based on the interaction of the fourth expanding
dimension with the three stationary dimensions.

Narrator : Like the Medieval God's-view of time, Einstein's physics
says that the future is already out there. The moments of our lives are

just waiting for us to step into them.

Roger Penrose : But there's no more problem about the future being out
there than saying that space is out there. You say, "Mars is out
there", but why is that more comprehensible than saying "next week is
out there"? It's just as far away in a certain sense.

Physicist : If you take this block of 4-D space/time literally, it
means you have to abandon free will. It means not only is the future
pre-ordained, but its already there, its already happened. There's no
point in making any decisions, whatever you do has already happened. If

I choose to drop this stone into a pond, I think of it being my own
free choice, but of course in 4-D space/time I had no choice in
dropping the stone ; the splash is already there in the future and so
we lose all free will. If time travel was possible, you can imagine
people coming back from the future to visit us; its no good us saying,
"you cant exist - you haven't happened yet".They've come from a time
which they consider to be their 'now' and for them we're in their path.

Roger Penrose : So this means that in a sense, the present past and
future are out there, and that also gives us a very deterministic view
of the world. We have no control of what happens in the future because
its all laid out. I think the trouble that people have with this idea
is that you think the future is under your control, to some degree, and

so this means that if the future's laid out then in a sense its not
under your control.

Physicist : Personally I'm very uncomfortable about the block universe
idea. Now this may be just a gut feeling or just irrational, but can't
accept the future's already 'out there'. I don't accept that I don't
have any free will.

Roger Penrose : I think there is a positive side to this picture of
space and time being laid out there as 4 dimensions, because it tells
you that all times are there once and it can affect the way one thinks
about people who have died. I mean, I remember thinking in this kind of

way when my mother died. In some sense she was still there because her
existence is still out there in space/time although in our time she is
not alive. A colleague of mine had a son who died in tragic
circumstances and I presented this idea to him and it helped his
understanding also. This was before I heard that Einstein had a
colleague died and he wrote to the man's wife that Bessa was still out
there, and that somehow this was reassuring. I certainly think this way

often, that space/time is laid out and that things in the past and
things in the future are out there still.

Narrator : But almost at the same time that Relativity was gaining
universal acceptance a radically different picture of the universe was
emerging.

Physicist : The way out if you don't want to accept the block universe
idea is quantum mechanics. Now, Quantum Mechanics is the second great
discovery of the 20th century physics and that states that the future
isn't predetermined and preordained.

Narrator : Quantum Mechanics was born out of a series of experiments
whose results even today have no satisfactory explanation. Relativity
works at the large scale where it provides exact predictions as to what

will happen next. But when physicists started looking down at the
atomic and sub-atomic level, the familiar laws failed. At this level,
there were no certainties, only probabilities. How can the future of
the universe be already out there if the future of a single molecule is

so utterly unpredictable?

Dr. E: The future of the universe is not already out there. Both
quantum mechanics and relativity derive from the same underlying
physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to three
spatial dimensions at the rate of c in units of the Planck length. The
wave-particle duality of matter comes from the inherent non-locality of

any matter at a point in the expanding dimension, which would appear as

photons expanding in a spherically symmetric manner at the rate of c.
The constant speed of light also comes from the physical reality of the

fourth dimension expanding relative to the three stationary spatial
dimensions. No matter how fast the emitter is traveling, the expanding
dimension yet carries the photon at the rate of c.

Physicist : Before we look to see what the atom is doing, not only is
there a gap in our knowledge, the atom itself has not decided what to
do. It had an infinite number of choices to make, it will be doing all
those choices all at once, and its only when we look to see what is
happening do we force it to make a choice. In Quantum Mechanics the
future is not determined, and so Quantum Mechanics in a sense rescues
us and rescues free will.

Roger Penrose : In a sense you don't have the future laid out in
Quantum Mechanics So Quantum Mechanics. is basically different in the
way we look at it. You do have this indeterminacy about the future and
a necessary feature of this is its incompatibility with Special
Relativity. So we have these 2 great theories, both of which are
extremely accurate, tell us something about how the world operates,
something very insightful and profound and accurate, but they're
incompatible with each other. So there's no doubt there's something
missing here. How important it is to how we 'feel' the passage of time
is I think very important.

Dr. E: But QM and SR perfectly compatible theories. In SR there is no
certain future-that is a byproduct of mistakenly looking at time as a
fourth dimension on equal footing with the three spatial dimensions.
The passage of time happens because of matter interacting with a
dimension that is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.
And all quantum mechanical and relativistic effects may be traced back
to Moving Dimensions Theory.

Narrator: The tragedy of modern physics is that it explains so much of
the objective universe but at the cost of what we subjectively feel;
about our conscious free will and our feeling that time does flow.

Faun Flynn: I very much think there's a flow to time. If you consider
what music would be like if there was no flow to time. You couldn't
have music if you didn't have memory, or if you didn't have an
expectation generated by that memory. You'd have an isolated note in
the 'now'. Music unfolds in time in such a way that we have a memory of

what we've heard, and this memory conditions to what we expect. This of

course is something that everybody is familiar with, because if you
hear ( 7 note scale played on piano) you have a very strong expectation

that the next note will be (plays final octave note of scale) . Music
is a distillation or a side-effect of that mental faculty we employ to
perceive time, and things changing in time.

Roger Penrose : The question of the passage of time is something the
scientists have rather set aside, and taking the view that its not
really physics, it's a subjective issue; and subjective questions are
not part of science. Now when you start talking about phenomena like
one's own perception of the passage of time, then that is a subjective
thing. And that's almost a taboo subject for science because it's
subjective. The physical world at least according to Relativity, is out

there, and there is no flow of time, it's just there; whereas our
feeling (we have this feeling of the passage of time) are intimately
connected to our perceptions.

Dr. E: Indeed scientists too often choose their battles selfishly,
thereby solving problems by saying that they do not need to be solved,
while simultaneously concentrating on obscure theories, spending
millions on building empty temples for the herd. The physical future is

not out there according to relativity. The passage of time is the
result of the propagation of energy. The aging of cells, the
oscillations of a quartz crystal, the unwinding of a clock spring, the
swing of a pendulum-all of these have to do with the exchange of
photons and thus the propagation of energy. And energy propagates at
the constant rate of c throughout the universe because the fourth
dimension, which carries matter that we perceive as photons, is
expanding at the rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions, in

units of the Planck length.

Physicist : We have this subjective feeling, that time goes by, but
physicists would argue this is just an illusion.

Roger Penrose : Yes I think physicists would agree that the feeling of
time passing is simply an illusion, something that is not real. It has
something to do with our perceptions.

Dr. E: The passage of time is real. Time's arrow, or entropy, or the
second law of thermodynamics are all explained by Moving Dimensions
Theory. Because a fourth dimension is expanding at the rate of c in a
spherically symmetric manner, all particles have a probability of being

displaced in a spherically symmetric manner. Thus any two particles
close to each other will wander apart.

Narrator : Illusion or not, our perceptions emerge somewhere between
the cosmic scale of Relativity where the flow of time is frozen and the

quantum scale, where flow descends to uncertainty. Our world is on a
scale governed by a mixture of chance and necessity.

Roger Penrose : My view is that there is some large scale quantum
activity going on in the brain. Physics does not say that Quantum
Mechanics takes place in small areas, but also take place over larger
areas. I think this has to do with the consciousness. I think we need a

new way to look at time, not either Quantum Mechanics or Relativity.

Dr. E: Moving Dimensions offers this new way of looking at time. Time
is not the fourth dimension, but it is a phenomena that arises because
a fourth spatial dimension is expanding relative to the three
stationary spatial dimensions.

Narrator : If Quantum Mechanics is taking place in the brain then the
same randomness of outcome and unpredictability might explain our
ability to make sometime random choices. Opening up the future to the
possibility of change would provide the first step of restoring to
physics the flow of time it currently denies.

Physicist : I don't think time flows, I feel that time flows, but I
feel we can only understand this if we have a better understanding of
how consciousness works. I think human consciousness probably has the
secrets as to how and why we think of time as going by.

Roger Penrose : I don't think we have the tools, I don't think we have
the physical picture to accommodate these things yet. We're not very
close to it.

Dr. E: Moving Dimensions Theory has just brought us closer.

The original dialogue may be found here:

[Only registered users see links. ]

Wheeler's Quantum Foam:

Brian Greene writes, "The notion of a smooth spatial geometry, the
central principle of general relativity, is destroyed by the violent
fluctuations of the quantum world on short distance scales. On
ultramicroscopic scales, the central feature of quantum mechanics-the
uncertainty principle-is in direct conflict with the central feature
of general relativity-the smooth geometrical model of space (and of
spacetime)... The equations of general relativity cannot handle the
roiling frenzy of quantum foam." Nor do they have to.

MDT happily unifies relativity and quantum mechanics with a simple
postulate. The fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three
spatial dimensions.

And because the fourth dimension is expanding in units of the Planck
length, quantum mechanical behavior manifests itself in all phenomena
that touch upon the notion of tiny distances. However, over large
distances, the expansion of the fourth dimension seems smooth and
continuous. Thus space and time appear smooth and continuous over large

distances.

Likewise, although light has a probability of traveling slower or
faster than c, due to the quantum mechanical nature of the expansion of

the dimension that carries it through space, over large distances time
is observed to travel at a the constant rate of c.

Relativity and quantum mechanics have always existed peaceably in
nature, and now, via Moving Dimensions Theory, relativity and quantum
mechanics exist peaceably in theory too.

String Theory's Admitted Shortcomings FROM ITS TEXTBOOKS!!!:

The great irony of string theory, however, is that the theory itself is

not unified. To someone learning the theory for the first time, it is
often a frustrating collection of folklore, rules of thumb, and
intuition. (IN OTHER WORDS IT IS NOT PHYSICS!!!) At times, there seems
to be no rhyme or reason for many of the conventions of the model. For
a theory that makes the claim of providing a unifying framework for all

physical laws, it is the supreme irony that the theory itself appears
so disunited!!

Chapter 1. Path Integrals and Point Particles: Why Strings?

"Introduction to Superstrings and M-Theory," page 5. -Michio Kaku

Supersymmetry is one of the most elegant of all symmetries, uniting
bosons and fermions into a single multiplet:

Fermions ßà Bosons

By uniting fields of differing statistics, supersymmetry and
supergroups have also opened up an entirely new area of mathematics...
However, the irony is that there is not a single shred of experimental
evidence in its favor. For example, physicists have tried to fit the
electron or neutrino into supersymmetric multiplets, but the scalar
partners of these leptons have never been seen. In fact, none of the
presently known particles has a supersymmetric partner.

Chapter 3, Superstrings, Supersymmetric Point Particles - Michio Kaku

Should New Ideas be Allowed in Contemporary Physics?

All of physic's greatest hits are contained in simple postulates,
laws, and equations that have stood the test of time and provided a
lever by which we could disturb the universe. For this reason, I am
advocating a return to physics that is expressed in simple postulates,
laws, and equations that can be discussed and tested by experiment.

Postmodern theories such as string theory are dangerous to physics and
physicists alike. Like Narcissus, who fell in the water while staring
at his own reflection, it seems many String Theorists have fallen into
a world of reflection, where they're not looking at physical reality,
but only themselves. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been poured
into String Theory, and yet not one postulate, nor law, nor proof, nor
success.

But the purpose of this paper is not to criticize string theory, but to

light the way to a new day with a simple postulate: the fourth
dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

After Einstein published his two postulates of special relativity and
his foundational paper on quantum mechanics, it was yet many years, and

tens of thousands of man hours, before a nobler physics bore itself
out-the realm of physics that is now known as relativity, that has
stood the tests of time and continues to inspire young physicists. And
so it is that today, Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, which came out
of either side of Einstein's mind, are yet the towering beacons that
inspire young physicists. When one wants to see further, one climbs on
top of the shoulders of giants-Newton, Bohr, Einstein, Dirac,
Shrodinger, and Wheeler. And it was from such a vantage point that I
saw Moving Dimensions Theory.

Contemporary physics, like much of academia, is cluttered with
political factions, charlatans, hypesters, and fund-raisers. Such a
system is self-reinforcing, and as time goes on, truth means less and
less, as politics, hype, and blind-faith land the postdocs, government
grants, and tenure.

Young physicists are bullied by pomo-hipster "the truth does not
exist" String Theorists who tell questioning young physicists that
they cannot question. When the young physicists continue to question
undeterred, the tenured string theorist waves her hands and makes it
personal, projecting their infinite shortcomings, telling the young
physicists that simply cannot comprehend the beauty of the ten, eleven,

twenty-two, or thirty dimensions.

But there are changes afoot, and prominent physicists-Nobel Prize
winners and true leaders-are stepping forth to criticize string
theory:

"If Einstein were alive today, he would be horrified at this state of
affairs. He would upbraid the profession for allowing this mess to
develop and fly into a blind rage over the transformation of his
beautiful creations into ideologies and the resulting proliferation of
logical inconsistencies. Einstein was an artist and a scholar but above

all he was a revolutionary. His approach to physics might be summarized

as hypothesizing minimally. Never arguing with experiment, demanding
total logical consistency, and mistrusting unsubstantiated beliefs. The

unsubstantial belief of his day was ether, or more precisely the naïve

version of ether that preceded relativity. The unsubstantiated belief
of our day is relativity itself. It would be perfectly in character for

him to reexamine the facts, toss them over in his mind, and conclude
that his beloved principle of relativity was not fundamental at all but

emergent-a collective property of the matter constituting space-time
that becomes increasingly exact at long length scales but fails at
short ones. This is a different idea from his original one but
something fully compatible with it logically, and even more exciting
and potentially important. It would mean that the fabric of space-time
was not simply the stage on which life played out but an organizational

phenomenon, and that there might be something beyond." -A Different
Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Robert B. Laughlin,

Winner of the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the fractional
quantum Hall effect.

"Despite its having become embedded in the discipline, the idea of
absolute symmetry makes no sense. Symmetries are cause by things, not
he cause of things. If relativity is always true, then there has to be
an underlying reason. Attempts to evade this problem inevitably result
in contradictions. Thus if we try to write down relativistic equations
describing the spectroscopy of a vacuum, we discover that the equations

are mathematical nonsense unless either relativity or guage invariance,

an equally important symmetry, is postulated to fail at extremely short

distances. No workable fix to this problem has ever been discovered.
String theory, originally invented for this purpose, has not succeeded.

In addition to its legendary appetite for higher dimensions, it also
has problems at short length scales, albeit more subtle ones, and has
never been shown to evolve into the standard model at long length
scales, as required for compatibility with experiment." -A
Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Robert B.

Laughlin, Winner of the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the
fractional quantum Hall effect

"Thus the innocent observation that the vacuum of space is empty is
not innocent at all, but is instead compelling evidence that light and
gravity are linked and probably both collective in nature. Real light,
like real quantum-mechanical sound, differs from its idealized
Newtonian counterpart in containing energy even when it is stone cold.
According to the principle of relativity, this energy should have
generated mass, and this, in turn, should have generated gravity. We
have no idea why it does not, so we deal with the problem the way the
government might, namely by simply declaring empty space not to
gravitate. In chutzpah, this ranks with the famous case of the Indiana
state legislature passing a law declaring Pi to have the value three.
It also demonstrates the severity of the problem, for one does not
resort to such desperate measures when there are reasonable
alternatives. The desire to explain away the gravity paradox
microscopically is also the motivation for the invention of
supersymmetry, a mathematical construction that assigns a special
complementary partner to every known elementary particle. Were a
superpartner ever discovered in nature, the hope for a reductionist
explanation for the emptiness of space might be rekindled, but this has

not happened, at least not yet."

"[String Theory] has no practical utility, however, other than to
sustain the myth of the ultimate theory. There is no experimental
evidence for the existence of strings in nature, nor does the special
mathematics of string theory enable known experimental behavior to be
calculated or predicted more easily. Moreover, the complex
spectroscopic properties of space accessible with today's mighty
accelerators are accountable in only as "low-energy
phenomenology"-a pejorative term for transcendent emergent
properties of matter impossible to calculate from first principles.
String theory is, in fact, a textbook case of Deceitful Turkey, a
beautiful set of ideas that will always remain just barely out of
reach. Far from a wonderful technological hope for a greater tomorrow,
it is instead the tragic consequence of an obsolete belief system-in
which emergence plays no role and dark law does not exist."

-A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down,
Robert B. Laughlin, Winner of the Nobel Prize in physics for his work
on the fractional quantum Hall effect.

"The master antitheory of the age is the idea that there is no
fundamental thing left to discover, so that the world we inhabit is
simply a swarm of detail that belongs to no one and thus can be
legitimately handled by business tactics-resource management,
competitive advertising, survival of the fittest, and so forth. A
corollary is that there is no absolute truth, but only products, like
shirts or hamburgers, that one throws away when their usefulness is
exhausted. Antitheories are dangerous ideologies not only because they
impede inquiry but because they lull one into ignoring threats that
one's opponents can exploit to their advantage."

-A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down,
Robert B. Laughlin, Winner of the Nobel Prize in physics for his work
on the fractional quantum Hall effect.

Acceleration occurs when an object is rotated in space-time, and the
conservation of momentum and energy were based on the conservation of
something more fundamental-the conservation of dimension.

Conservation Laws: Newton's Laws & The Law of Inertia

The conservation of energy and the conservation of momentum can be
expressed as the conservation of rotation in space-time. Every particle

has a probability of existing in ace or time. A photon has close to a
100% probability of existing in time and close to a 0% chance of
existing in space. Mass has close to a 100% chance of existing in
space, and close to 0% chance of existing in time. When one adds
photons to massive objects, one gives them energy, the net photon-mass
object has a greater chance of existing in time than did the massive
object on its own.

\ | /

\ | /

\ | /

\ | /

\ | /

| | | | \|/ |

B A C

Because massive objects curve space-time, the probability of being in
space and time are altered by gravitational fields.

Consider point A in the figure above, close to a massive object. The
rate at which the fourth dimension expands is always proportional to
the space metric at the exact point from where the expansion
originates. So the time metric at point B is shorter than the time
metric at point A which is shorter than the time metric at point C. The

fourth dimension, expanding from point A, will arrive at point B before

it arrives at point C.

Acceleration occurs when an object is rotated in space-time, and the
conservation of momentum and energy were based on the conservation of
something more fundamental-the conservation of dimension.

Because space is stretched towards the massive object, and all objects
try to preserve their relative rotation with respect to space and time,

the object has a greater chance of being in the time dimension where
the space is stretched. Hence the acceleration expected due to the laws

And so too is it seen that in the Schroedinger equation that the change

of probability with respect to time results in an acceleration in
space.

Questions Addressed by MDT:

Why is the speed of light constant in all frames?

Why are light and energy quantized?

How can matter display both wave and particle properties?

Why are there non-local effects in quantum mechanics?

Why does time stop at the speed of light?

How come a photon does not age?

Why are inertial mass and gravitational mass the same thing?

Why do moving bodies exhibit length contraction?

Why are mass and energy equivalent?

Why does time's arrow point in the direction it points in?

Why do photons appear as spherically-symmetric wavefronts traveling at
a velocity c?

Why is there a minus sign in the following metric?
x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=s^2

What deeper reality underlies Einstein's postulates of relativity?

What deeper reality underlies Newton's laws?

How MDT Is Aiding Fellow Physicists

"The conclusions from Bell's theorem are philosophically startling;
either one must totally abandon the realistic philosophy of most
working scientists or dramatically revise our concept of space-time."
-Abner Shimony and John Clauser

Moving Dimensions Theory provides this new concept of space-time. [Only registered users see links. ]

The underlying expanding fourth dimension gives rise to non-local
phenomena.

"For me, then, this is the real problem with quantum theory: the
apparently essential conflict between any sharp formulation and
fundamental relativity. It may be that a real synthesis of quantum and
relativity theories requires not just technical developments but
radical conceptual renewal." --John Bell

Moving Dimensions Theory provides this radical conceptual renewal. [Only registered users see links. ]

"Entanglement is not one but rather the characteristic trait of quantum

mechanics." --Erwin Schrodinger

"The discovery of the quantum of action shows us not only the natural
limitation of classical physics, but, by throwing a new light upon the
old philsophical problem of the objective existence of phenomena
indepedently of our observations, confronts us with a situation
hitherto unknown in natural science." --Niels Bohr

"I think we need a new way to look at time, not either Quantum
Mechanics or Relativity." -Roger Penrose

"Should we be prepared to see some day a new structure for the
foundations of physics that does away with time? . . . Yes, because
'time' is in trouble." -John Wheeler

"Time is clothed in a different garment for each role it plays in our
thinking." -John Wheeler

"The word time came not from heaven but form the mouth of man."
-John Wheeler

"My ideas about time all developed from the realization that if
nothing were to change we could not say that times passes. Change is
primary, time, if it exists at all, is something we deduce from it.

My Italian collaborator Bruno Bertotti and I found that the deep
structure of Einstein's general theory of relativity does correspond to

this truth. It is telling us that time does not exist as an independent

thing and that change is indeed primary. However, this is in the
framework of so-called classical physics, the form of physics that
developed before quantum mechanics was discovered. When the idea that
time has no independent existence is combined with the basic facts of
quantum mechanics in the simplest possible way, the implications are
startling.

The quantum universe is static. Only timeless Nows exist. The quantum
rules give them different probabilities. We experience the most
probable Nows as individual instants of time. The appearance of motion
and a flow of time are both illusions created by very special structure

of the instants that we experience." -Julian Barbour, [Only registered users see links. ]

"The mystery of time's arrow is the oldest problem in science
concerning the nature of time, predating even the theory of
relativity." -Paul Davies, About Time

Moving Dimensions Theory & On The Advancement Of Physics

Physics has been furthered far more often by a rugged individual
acknowledging the simple and obvious in a pursuit of the truth than
book-keepers-in-training playing games in the abstruse in pursuit of
tenure. The advancement of physics has ever depended far more on logic,

reason, and Truth than government grants, tenure, group think,
peer-reviewed journals, and aging bureaucracies. "That is the way
things are because that is the way things are," has lead to far more
physics than the contemporary, "things can't be that way because
the math dictates that we live in thirty-three dimensions and four are
curled up, and that is what NSF is funding."

When experiments showed that light existed only in quantized packets,
Einstein proclaimed that light only existed in quantized packets, and
he won the Nobel Prize. When spectra from atoms showed discreet
energies, Niels Bohr proclaimed that electrons orbits were quantized,
and he received a Nobel Prize. When Maxwell's Equations had a
recurring constant, Maxwell used c to denote it, and Einstein
proclaimed that the speed of light must be constant for all
observers-and so Special Relativity was born. When Einstein
juxtaposed objects falling towards the earth getting closer together
with the fact that two people starting at the equator, walking on
originally parallel lines of longitude towards the North Pole, would
come together because they were walking on a curve surface, Einstein
proclaimed that the space-time around a massive object must also be
curved. This along with Einstein's realization that the force of
gravity would be rendered null in free-fall, lead to General
Relativity.

And so it is that in the above paragraph you have the roots of the
greatest achievements of physics in the past 100+ years, dwarfing
String Theory, Loop Quantum Gravity, and thousands of their variatons,
which deal in the abstruse, complicated, muddled, and mythological
worlds which are safe from physics simple rigor.

Moving Dimensions Theory returns us to simpler times. It starts with
the simple and keeps it simple. Light travels with a maximum velocity
of c, because the fourth dimension is expanding at a rate relative to
the three spatial dimensions at the velocity of c. A photon expands
through space in a spherically symmetric manner. This is because the
fourth dimension expands through the three spatial dimensions in a
spherically symmetric manner. Energy and mass are equivalent, expressed

by E=mc^2, because energy is nothing more than mass rotated into the
expanding fourth dimension. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect (EPR)
effect, which calls instantaneous action at a distance "spooky,"
can be accounted for by the expanding dimension-as a point expands,
it is yet a single locale in that dimension, and hence though separated

by distance in space, interacting particles may be in the same place in

the time dimension, and hence connected. The null vector of the photon,

which remains 0 no matter how far the photon travels in space-time, may

be accounted for by the fact that the fourth dimension is moving, and
thus the only way to stay still in the four dimensions is to move with
along with the expanding dimension. In Lorentzian Transformations,
there is no way for an object to be rotated into the time dimension
without it moving-this can be explained by the fact that the time
dimension is expanding. All wave-particle duality can be seen as the
result of the universe's existence upon a reality that has three
stationary spatial dimensions and one expanding time dimension-when
matter exists in the stationary dimensions, it is seen as mass, or a
particle. When matter exists in the time dimension it is seen as wave,
or a photon, or energy. Depending how we choose to observer matter
determines whether we observe its wave or particle properties. Photons
are quantized bundles of energy that propagate at the velocity of
c-this is because the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the
three spatial dimensions in a quantized manner, in units of Planck's
length at the rate of c. The Second Law of Thermodyamics, or the law of

Entropy, states that the universe tends towards disorder. This is
because the fourth dimension is expanding in a spherically symmetric
manner, constantly carrying all photons and interacting particles away
from one another-thus a drop of food coloring in a pool will be
carried outward and evenly distributed. In 1949 Godel published a paper

showing that within the theory of relativity, time as we understand it,

does not exist. Einstein recognized Godel's paper as "an important
contribution to the general theory of relativity," and since then
physicists have not been able to find any logical shortcomings in
Godel's work, and nobody has been able to account for the existence
of time. But the Theory of Moving Dimensions accounts for time as we
know it by showing that it is an emergent property of the underlying
dimension's intrinsic relative movement. Relativity becomes
increasingly exact at long-length scales but fails at short ones
because space-time itself is quantized, as the time dimension is
expanding in units of the Planck length. The concept of general
relativity's smooth geometry, at large scales, disappears on
short-distance scales-this has been a problem to string theorists,
but only because they were never bold enough to recognize that's the
way it is because that's the way it is. Realizing this might have
lead one of them to see that the fourth dimension is expanding at a
rate of c relative to the three spatial dimensions.

So it is seen that Moving Dimensions Theory offers a simple model upon
which all known phenomena of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics may rest.

And because the underlying architecture of the universe is
quantized-because the fourth dimension expands at the rate of c in
units of the Planck length relative to the three spatial dimensions,
quantum mechanics works for the small, while general relativity works
for the large. That is the way it is because that is the way it
is-this was the realization that lead to the postulate of MDT: the
fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.