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The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions - Physics Forum

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions - Physics Forum. Discuss and ask physics questions, kinematics and other physics problems.

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

[Only registered users see links. ]

The Theory of Moving Dimensions
Dr. Elliot McGucken [Only registered users see links. ]
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,
while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and
Relativity.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time
dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time
dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does
something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial
dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a
Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time
dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I
would very much like to hear about it.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0
or
x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes
x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
of light.

ct| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
|/_______________
x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at
the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
diminished.
Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.

The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions.

Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a
universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is
merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other
dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between
dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,
because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of
energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we
write as c.

Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the
speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of
energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,
such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a
mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which
liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is
propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy
itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time
dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.

Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase
in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object
resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length
contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains
velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated
into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light
the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent
from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a
particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability
that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in
essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial
dimension.

Any material entity gains more energy as its velocity increases, and
relativity demonstrates that the entity also gains more mass. When
energy is added to an entity, it may also appears as mass, as that
energy has a finite chance of interacting with the spatial dimensions.

All matter has a spatial component, or a probability of interacting
with space, whereas a photon only interacts with that which is in the
time dimension.

In order to cause an entity to move, quanta of energy must be added to
it, and the entity will thus gain a new probabilities for existing in
the space and time dimensions, as its overall wavefunction, including
its mass and energy, is rotated out of the spatial dimension and into
the time dimension. This rotation into the time dimension will be
proportional to the amount of energy that has been added.

As only photons can exist purely in the spatial dimension, no entities
but for photons can ever reach the speed of light, as all matter has a
finite chance of existing purely in the spatial dimension. This
property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial
dimension curves the fabric of space-time about the existence.

An entity moves through space-time according to its probability of
existing in space and time. The more energy a given entity has, the
more likely it is to exist in the time dimension, or be moving along
in the dimension which is expanding relative to the spatial
dimensions. Hence its greater velocity, and also its augmented chance
of interacting with matter over a fixed distance. This increased
chance of interacting with matter over a given distance can be
associated with a shorter deBroglie wavelength or a higher frequency.
A more energetic photon has a higher frequency, as it is composed of
more substance, and more momenergy must pass a given point at any
given time. A less energetic photon carries less momenergy, and thus
there is a smaller chance of it interacting with matter as it passes
on by. A more energetic photon has a higher probability of interacting
with matter as it passes it by, as its shorter wavelngth and higher
frequency represent a greater, more persistant existence in
space-time.

A photon has no spatial dimensions, as it is matter rotated into the
time dimension. Einstein's famous equation which expresses the
equivalnce between matter and energy:

E=mc^2

holds true because radiative energy, consisting of photons, is merely
matter which has been rotaed tinto the expanding time dimension.

In quantum mechanics energy is accounted for by the operator which
represents the infinitesimal change with respect to time, while
momentum is accounted for by an operator which represents the
infinitesimal change with respect to space. Both momentum and energy
are defined with the concept of change and probability. And too,
inherent in all waves are the concepts of motion and probability.

Einstein's postulates derive from the fact that in all inertial
reference frames, the relative motions between the dimensions is fixed
at a constant rate, because the relative motion between the dimensions
is measured relative to the relative motion. Thus the laws of physics,
and all physical concepts, which are all fundamentally based on the
concept of motion or change with respect to time, are also fixed in
all interial frames, and the speed of light is constant in all
inertail frames.

As physics concerns itself at all levels with changes relative to both
space and time, it makes sense that all physics, time, motion,
reality, life, and consciousness itself are founded upon a stage which
is endowed with intrinsic motion.

The underlying fabric of all reality, the dimensions themselves, are
moving relative to one another.

I'm treating this as an open-source physics project, if anyone would
like to join me at [Only registered users see links. ]

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is MovingRelative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

Captain Ranger McCoy wrote:
[snip 255 lines of crap]

c=c, h=0, G=G: General Relativity
c=c, h=h, G=0: Quantum field theory

Nothing in your prolix spew creates c=c, h=h, G=G boundary
conditions. You are wrong. Wasn't that fast, simple, and easy?

Do you think with that mind? Why don't you save yourelf a lot of
publci embarassment (not that you haven't attempted a monopoly
already) and look up the physics-related meaning of rapidities,
boosts, and rotations as in Lorentz boosts, Thomas–Wigner rotations,
and Thomas precession.

--
Uncle Al [Only registered users see links. ]
(Toxic URL! Unsafe for children and most mammals) [Only registered users see links. ]

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

Outline of Dr. E's Upcoming Paper on Moving Dimensions
Rest Energy:
Where does an object's rest energy come from? It comes from fact that
the expanding time dimension is moving, giving a stationary object a
velocity of c through space-time, even when the object appears at rest
on a lab table. This massive velocity relative to time, when translated
into the spatial dimensions via a Lorentz rotation of the velocity
4-vector, is manifested in energy. E=mc^2.

The Photon's Null Vector:
How can we be comfortable that an entity of zero length moves at the
speed of light? The only way for this to make sense is if the time
dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimension. A null vector in
space-time is defined by a photon, which moves at the velocity of light
through space-time. So it is that to have zero length in space-time, an
entity must translate through the three spatial dimensions at the
velocity of light. This notion of maintaining zero interval by a
velocity equal to c suggests that one of the coordinates, specifically
the time coordinate, is moving at a velocity c relative to the three
spatial coordinates.

The Notion of Standing Still in Space and Time:
The only way to remain stationary in space is to move through time with
a velocity of c. The only way to remain stationary in time is to move
through space with a velocity of c.
Thus the time and space dimensions must be moving relative to one
another.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate of
c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along the x
axis still shortens (Lorentz contraction), but now it begins to move
through the three spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed
of c through space-time. Again, we see it move through the three
spatial dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the
time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau), where
tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be
c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an
object's speed through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be
accompanied by a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed
through time, which also may be considered the rate at which time
elapses on it's own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with
that on our stationary clock dt.

Conservation of Momemtum & Energy = Conservation of Momenergy

Red Shift

More Curvature = Slower Time:

Energy's Mass:
Energy has mass because energy is mass rotated fully into the moving
time dimension. Energy has zero rest mass, as mass represents the
component of an object that exists in the spatial dimensions, through
which time can expand.

Time Dilation:
Clocks slow down as they approach the speed of light, because they
catch up with the expanding time dimension. All clocks measure time
based on the emission of photons. The faster a clock travels, the less
chance there is for it to emit a photon, as the photon will be
reabsorbed.

Constancy of c in all frames:
The measurement of time is always measured with some mechanism that is
based on the propagation of photons, whether it be photons in a clock
spring or photons in a quartz crystal. Hence, when we measure the speed
of light in a frame, we are always measuring it relative to a mechanism
based on the speed of light in that frame. Hence the velocity of light
is always viewed as a constant in all frames.

Length Contraction:
Picture four dimensions-three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particular axis decreases. When an object is rotated into time, its
projection along the x, y, and z directions decreases. This is known as
relativistic length contraction. Relativistic length contraction is
*always* accompanied by time dilation and an increase in the object's
velocity. Because rotating an object along the time dimension always
results in the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial
dimensions, one can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Spherical Symmetry of Photon Propagation:
Quantum mechanics teaches us that a photon propagates as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront. This is because a photon is mass
rotated into the time dimension, which is expanding as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront.

Spherical Symmetry of Time Expansion through Three Dimensions:
The projection of a sphere in two dimensions is a circle. The
projection of the fourth dimension in three dimensions is a sphere. And
because this fourth dimension, time, is expanding, it appears as an
expanding sphere. For a photon to stay stationary in time, it moves
through space with a velocity of c. Think about that-the photon stays
stationary in time, while moving at a velocity of c relative to the
three spatial diemensions. It expands as a spherically symmetrical
wavefront by staying stationary in time. Therefore, time must be
expanding in a spherically symmetric manner throughout space.

Rest Mass Is Invariant
Rest mass represents an entity that exists fully in space. It is
invariant.

Increase of System Mass:
As an object accelerates through space-time, the mass of the system
increases as energy is added. The rest mass remains invariant, but it
is pulled along through space-time by interacting with photons, which
in turn no longer travel the speed of light. When photons interact with
matter, matter accelerates, while photons slow down.

Entropy:
Because time is expanding as a spherically symmetric wavefront through
the three spatial dimensions, photons, as well as all matter that
interacts with photons, have a probability to move in a spherically
symmetric manner. Thus, if we have a clump of atoms in the middles of a
room, a probability exists for the atoms to spread apart in a
spherically symmetric manner.

The - c2t2 in the space-time metric
The four dimensions of space-time are divided into three spatial
dimensions and one time dimension. In the space-time metric, where ds
is an invariant expressed as\ ds^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2, the minus sign
and c^2 distinguishes the t coordinate from the three spatial
coordinates. Why the minus sign exists is most often glossed over-it
is considered to just "be" there, because it is there.

That the time dimension is different somehow from the three spatial
dimensions is obvious. This difference is a result of the time
dimension moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

Planck's constant

Fundamental Wave Nature
The fundamental wave nature of all matter is based upon the fundamental
wave nature of space-time.

Wave-Particle Duality
Wave particle duality is a result of measurements of objects
interacting upon a canvas of space and time dimensions that are moving
relative to one another. Wave behavior, or interference, results when
two photons interfere in the time dimension as it propagates through
space. Particle behavior results when a photon interacts with an
electron, when it is taken out of the moving time dimension and
localized in the static spatial dimensions, being caught by the
electron.

Philosophical and Physical Barriers to Moving Dimensions
Many trained physicists have a knee-jerk reaction that the time
dimension cannot be moving because "dimensions cannot move." First
off, since the universe is expanding, space-time is also expanding,
demonstrating that dimensions are moving and expanding. Secondly,
general relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp space-time,
meaning that as a massive object moves though space-time, it stretches
space-time, showing again that space-time in one area can move, or
deform, relative to space-time in another area. Thus there exist
neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept of moving
dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds.

Rather than just accepting the minus sign in front of the c^2t^2 as
being there because it "just is there," this paper aims to look at
the deeper reality which gives rise to the minus sign. A physicist's
job is not to accept things on blind faith, nor only ask questions that
are allowed to be asked, but a physicist's job is to wonder. And that
wonder, which seems all but forgotten in the bureaucratization of
modern physics, leads to the deeper beauty. "Imagination is more
important than knowledge," was how one physicist put it.

Increasing Energy Increases Momentum

Conservation of Dimension

Gravity

Red Shift

The Increase of Mass With Velocity

Conclusion:
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena found in relativity and quantum mechanics. The
constant speed of light, time dilation, Lorentzian contraction,
wave-particle duality, the equivalence of mass and energy, the
gravitational red-shift, and the second law of thermodynamics may all
be explained on a deeper level by a theory of moving dimensions. Such a
theory may also offer a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics
and Relativity.

The only way to stay still in the three spatial dimensions is to move
at the velocity of light c through time. The only way to stay still in
the time dimension is to move at the velocity of light c through space.
How else can this be explained, but with space and time coordinates are
in motion relative to one-another?

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

"Captain Ranger McCoy" <[Only registered users see links. ]> wrote in message
news:1119980512.764328.262720@o13g2000cwo.googlegr oups.com...

The symmetry of a free particles lagranigan in an inertial frame - acquaint
yourself with Noethers theorem - [Only registered users see links. ]

The action integral has the form integral something where that something
should be invariant. The only invariant to construct it out of is
proportional to the differential of proper time tau ie integral alpha*dtau
where alpha is some constant. To find the constant we take the non
relativistic limit of alpha*dtau alpha*dtau = alpha*sqrt (1 -v^2) dt so the
lagrangian is alpha*sqrt (1 -v^2) which for small v is alpha - alpha v^2/2
which is equivalent to - alpha*v^2/2 - constants can be removed from the
lagrangian without affecting the resulting equations. Comparing that to
the classical free particle lagrangian m*v^2/2 we see alpha is -m. Thus the
relativistic free particle lagrangian is L = -m sqrt (1 -v^2). Now energy E
is defined as the conserved Noether current related to time translation
which is E = (part deriv L/part deriv v) . v - L which works out as E = M /
sqrt (1 - v^2). Now suppose a particle is at rest we end up with E = M.
Thus we see that a rest particle of mass M is equivalent to energy E = M (or
in units where C not = 1 M*C^2).

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

I hope that I can find my way home. When is there going to
be a fifth dimension ... oops there already is. "Up, up and away
in My Beautiful Balloon." Maybe someone ought to attach some
string theory to the Balloon. Or is it baloney?

"Captain Ranger McCoy" <[Only registered users see links. ]> wrote in message
news:1119971396.784403.267700@g47g2000cwa.googlegr oups.com...
: [Only registered users see links. ]
:
: The Theory of Moving Dimensions
: Dr. Elliot McGucken
: [Only registered users see links. ]
: In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
: the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
: physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,
: while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and
: Relativity.
:
: Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time
: dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time
: dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial
: dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does
: something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial
: dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a
: Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time
: dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I
: would very much like to hear about it.
:
: Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:
:
: I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
: II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
: independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.
:
: I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
: manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:
:
: I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
: dimensions.
:
:
: This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
: for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
: which traces a photon's path through space-time:
:
: x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0
: or
: x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2
:
: Which for one spatial dimension becomes
: x^2=c^2t^2
:
: or x=ct
:
: by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get
:
: dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c
:
: so
:
: dx/dt = c
:
: And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
: the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
: of light.
:
: ct| /
: | /
: | /
: | /
: | /
: |/_______________
: x
:
: Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
: only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at
: the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
: The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
: space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
: though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
: stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
: remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
: light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
: moving relative to space.
:
: Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
: Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
: is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
: that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
: projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
: stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
: of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
: the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
: spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
: space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
: dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
: dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.
:
: As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
: Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
: x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
: where tau is the proper time defined by
: d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
: space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
: ((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
: of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
: c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
: +(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
: through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
: a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
: which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
: own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
: stationary clock dt.
:
: As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
: dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
: relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
: fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
: on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
: moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
: chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
: diminished.
: Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
: relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
: quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
: reality.
:
: Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
: the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
: dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
: mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
: dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
: rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.
:
: As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
: the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
: the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
: begins to move.
:
: Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
: can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
: which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
: reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
: accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
: the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
: or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
: moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
: dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
: energy and thus mass.
:
: The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
: for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
: existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
: dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
: wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
: into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
: spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
: in all directions.
:
: Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a
: universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is
: merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other
: dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between
: dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,
: because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of
: energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we
: write as c.
:
: Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the
: speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of
: energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,
: such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a
: mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which
: liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is
: propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy
: itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time
: dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.
:
: Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase
: in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object
: resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length
: contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains
: velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated
: into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
: persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light
: the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent
: from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a
: particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability
: that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in
: essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial
: dimension.
:
: Any material entity gains more energy as its velocity increases, and
: relativity demonstrates that the entity also gains more mass. When
: energy is added to an entity, it may also appears as mass, as that
: energy has a finite chance of interacting with the spatial dimensions.
:
: All matter has a spatial component, or a probability of interacting
: with space, whereas a photon only interacts with that which is in the
: time dimension.
:
: In order to cause an entity to move, quanta of energy must be added to
: it, and the entity will thus gain a new probabilities for existing in
: the space and time dimensions, as its overall wavefunction, including
: its mass and energy, is rotated out of the spatial dimension and into
: the time dimension. This rotation into the time dimension will be
: proportional to the amount of energy that has been added.
:
: As only photons can exist purely in the spatial dimension, no entities
: but for photons can ever reach the speed of light, as all matter has a
: finite chance of existing purely in the spatial dimension. This
: property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial
: dimension curves the fabric of space-time about the existence.
:
: An entity moves through space-time according to its probability of
: existing in space and time. The more energy a given entity has, the
: more likely it is to exist in the time dimension, or be moving along
: in the dimension which is expanding relative to the spatial
: dimensions. Hence its greater velocity, and also its augmented chance
: of interacting with matter over a fixed distance. This increased
: chance of interacting with matter over a given distance can be
: associated with a shorter deBroglie wavelength or a higher frequency.
: A more energetic photon has a higher frequency, as it is composed of
: more substance, and more momenergy must pass a given point at any
: given time. A less energetic photon carries less momenergy, and thus
: there is a smaller chance of it interacting with matter as it passes
: on by. A more energetic photon has a higher probability of interacting
: with matter as it passes it by, as its shorter wavelngth and higher
: frequency represent a greater, more persistant existence in
: space-time.
:
: A photon has no spatial dimensions, as it is matter rotated into the
: time dimension. Einstein's famous equation which expresses the
: equivalnce between matter and energy:
:
: E=mc^2
:
: holds true because radiative energy, consisting of photons, is merely
: matter which has been rotaed tinto the expanding time dimension.
:
: In quantum mechanics energy is accounted for by the operator which
: represents the infinitesimal change with respect to time, while
: momentum is accounted for by an operator which represents the
: infinitesimal change with respect to space. Both momentum and energy
: are defined with the concept of change and probability. And too,
: inherent in all waves are the concepts of motion and probability.
:
: Einstein's postulates derive from the fact that in all inertial
: reference frames, the relative motions between the dimensions is fixed
: at a constant rate, because the relative motion between the dimensions
: is measured relative to the relative motion. Thus the laws of physics,
: and all physical concepts, which are all fundamentally based on the
: concept of motion or change with respect to time, are also fixed in
: all interial frames, and the speed of light is constant in all
: inertail frames.
:
: As physics concerns itself at all levels with changes relative to both
: space and time, it makes sense that all physics, time, motion,
: reality, life, and consciousness itself are founded upon a stage which
: is endowed with intrinsic motion.
:
: The underlying fabric of all reality, the dimensions themselves, are
: moving relative to one another.
:
: I'm treating this as an open-source physics project, if anyone would
: like to join me at [Only registered users see links. ]
:

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

[Only registered users see links. ]

Rest Energy:

Where does an object's rest energy come from? It comes from fact that
the expanding time dimension is moving, giving a stationary object a
velocity of c through space-time, even when the object appears at rest
on a lab table. This massive velocity relative to time, when translated
into the spatial dimensions via a Lorentz rotation of the velocity
4-vector, is manifested in energy. E=mc^2.

The Photon's Null Vector:

How can we be comfortable that an entity of zero length moves at the
speed of light? The only way for this to make sense is if the time
dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimension. A null vector in
space-time is defined by a photon, which moves at the velocity of light
through space-time. So it is that to have zero length in space-time, an
entity must translate through the three spatial dimensions at the
velocity of light. This notion of maintaining zero interval by a
velocity equal to c suggests that one of the coordinates, specifically
the time coordinate, is moving at a velocity c relative to the three
spatial coordinates.

The Notion of Standing Still in Space and Time:

The only way to remain stationary in space is to move through time with
a velocity of c. The only way to remain stationary in time is to move
through space with a velocity of c.

Thus the time and space dimensions must be moving relative to one
another.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate of
c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along the x
axis still shortens (Lorentz contraction), but now it begins to move
through the three spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed
of c through space-time. Again, we see it move through the three
spatial dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the
time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau), where
tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be
c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an
object's speed through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be
accompanied by a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed
through time, which also may be considered the rate at which time
elapses on it's own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with
that on our stationary clock dt.

Conservation of Momemtum & Energy = Conservation of Momenergy

Red Shift

More Curvature = Slower Time:

Energy's Mass:

Energy has mass because energy is mass rotated fully into the moving
time dimension. Energy has zero rest mass, as mass represents the
component of an object that exists in the spatial dimensions, through
which time can expand.

Time Dilation:

Clocks slow down as they approach the speed of light, because they
catch up with the expanding time dimension. All clocks measure time
based on the emission of photons. The faster a clock travels, the less
chance there is for it to emit a photon, as the photon will be
reabsorbed.

Constancy of c in all frames:

The measurement of time is always measured with some mechanism that is
based on the propagation of photons, whether it be photons in a clock
spring or photons in a quartz crystal. Hence, when we measure the speed
of light in a frame, we are always measuring it relative to a mechanism
based on the speed of light in that frame. Hence the velocity of light
is always viewed as a constant in all frames.

Length Contraction:

Picture four dimensions-three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particular axis decreases. When an object is rotated into time, its
projection along the x, y, and z directions decreases. This is known as
relativistic length contraction. Relativistic length contraction is
*always* accompanied by time dilation and an increase in the object's
velocity. Because rotating an object along the time dimension always
results in the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial
dimensions, one can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Spherical Symmetry of Photon Propagation:

Quantum mechanics teaches us that a photon propagates as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront. This is because a photon is mass
rotated into the time dimension, which is expanding as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront.

Spherical Symmetry of Time Expansion through Three Dimensions:

The projection of a sphere in two dimensions is a circle. The
projection of the fourth dimension in three dimensions is a sphere. And
because this fourth dimension, time, is expanding, it appears as an
expanding sphere. For a photon to stay stationary in time, it moves
through space with a velocity of c. Think about that-the photon stays
stationary in time, while moving at a velocity of c relative to the
three spatial diemensions. It expands as a spherically symmetrical
wavefront by staying stationary in time. Therefore, time must be
expanding in a spherically symmetric manner throughout space.

Rest Mass Is Invariant

Rest mass represents an entity that exists fully in space. It is
invariant.

Increase of System Mass:

As an object accelerates through space-time, the mass of the system
increases as energy is added. The rest mass remains invariant, but it
is pulled along through space-time by interacting with photons, which
in turn no longer travel the speed of light. When photons interact with
matter, matter accelerates, while photons slow down.

Entropy:

Because time is expanding as a spherically symmetric wavefront through
the three spatial dimensions, photons, as well as all matter that
interacts with photons, exhibits a probability to move in a spherically
symmetric manner. Thus, if we have a clump of atoms in the middles of a
room, a probability exists for the atoms to spread apart in a
spherically symmetrical manner. at each point in space, they exhibit a
probabilty of moving along any of the three spatial coordinates,
carried along by the expanding time dimension.

The - c2t2 in the space-time metric

The four dimensions of space-time are divided into three spatial
dimensions and one time dimension. In the space-time metric, where ds
is an invariant expressed as\ ds^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2, the minus sign
and c^2 distinguishes the t coordinate from the three spatial
coordinates. Why the minus sign exists is most often glossed over-it
is considered to just "be" there, because it is there.

That the time dimension is different somehow from the three spatial
dimensions is obvious. This difference is a result of the time
dimension moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

Planck's constant

Fundamental Wave Nature

The fundamental wave nature of all matter is based upon the fundamental
wave nature of space-time.

Wave-Particle Duality

Wave particle duality is a result of measurements of objects
interacting upon a canvas of space and time dimensions that are moving
relative to one another. Wave behavior, or interference, results when
two photons interfere in the time dimension as it propagates through
space. Particle behavior results when a photon interacts with an
electron, when it is taken out of the moving time dimension and
localized in the static spatial dimensions, being caught by the
electron.

Philosophical and Physical Barriers to Moving Dimensions

Many trained physicists have a knee-jerk reaction that the time
dimension cannot be moving because "dimensions cannot move." First
off, since the universe is expanding, space-time is also expanding,
demonstrating that dimensions are moving and expanding. Secondly,
general relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp space-time,
meaning that as a massive object moves though space-time, it stretches
space-time, showing again that space-time in one area can move, or
deform, relative to space-time in another area. Thus there exist
neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept of moving
dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds.

Rather than just accepting the minus sign in front of the c^2t^2 as
being there because it "just is there," this paper aims to look at
the deeper reality which gives rise to the minus sign. A physicist's
job is not to accept things on blind faith, nor only ask questions that
are allowed to be asked, but a physicist's job is to wonder. And that
wonder, which seems all but forgotten in the bureaucratization of
modern physics, leads to the deeper beauty. "Imagination is more
important than knowledge," was how one physicist put it.

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

mcGucken: Your idea should not be simply dismissed so lightly. It is a
novel and simple attempt to explain an empirical fact that arises when
trying to measure the speed of light. However, others are not satisfied
with your unfinished attempt to articulate and clarify your idea. This
idea is not new by the way, however, it would become the unique
property of the first person(s) to present a complete and coherent
exposition of it which was as practical as Special Relativity in
accounting for current facts and predicting new ones, as well as giving
an eloquent description that has less conceptual problems and paradoxes
than Special Relativity.

The idea of 'dimensions' moving relative to one another is not as
ludicrous as it seems, since in General Relativity space-time itself
has a structure and substance to it that is not mere mathematical
apparatus. In effect, GR is not a truly relativistic theory in the
Machian sense, but is as 'absolute space'-heavy as Newtonian Gravity.
Einstein failed to carry out Mach's agenda of a purely relative account
of motion and force, and instead actually made things worse by giving
the gravitational field a reality previously unknown, allowing it to
store energy/mass.

I mention this because if space-time itself has a reality and a
'position', or can act as an anchor or means to establish a kind of
absolute positional frame, there may be merit in considering only one
or two dimensions as having a 'substance' too, which implies detectable
effects and scientific tests. This would be an 'aether'-like effect.

My problem with your exposition is that it is not simpler than SR yet.
You are using terms and ideas borrowed from SR, like Minkowski
Space-time, and the perception of time and its relation to velocity,
yet have not clarified how your theory would use or define these ideas
differently, and this disturbs those who have clear definitions of the
concepts based upon SR.

For instance, one approach might be to study SR long and hard enough to
have mastered its concepts and flaws, thus putting yourself in a
position to provide an intelligent critique of SR first, to lay the
ground for your new theory and its concepts. In particular, you should
make the overlap and differences between the native concepts and
definitions of each theory clear. (And spell out the advantages and
trade-offs of each theory too.)

Right now, it appears to others that you are using concepts that are
borrowed from SR but not properly understood, since they haven't the
same meaning for you.

A good example is the concept of T versus t, and you should perhaps put
together some short thought-experiments to show why your interpretation
of time(s) is less paradoxical than SR.

One significant problem I think you are facing is that you are
accepting certain mathematical constructs and ideas uncritically, such
as Minkowski Spacetime (MS). Why should we use this mathematical
apparatus, and why not just stick with SR if we do so? How can your
account of causes and effects make better use of MS? Personally, I
think Minkowski Spacetime has played out its usefulness, but still
makes a good bumwipe. So why saddle yourself with mathematical
structures that have probably had their day? Why treat TIME as a
dimension at all? It may look cute on a paper graph or drawing, but do
we really have any business pretending that time is anything like
space? Sometimes mathematicians can be real idiots.

An example of the trouble that mathematical apparatus can cause is the
ad-hoc patchwork way in which direction itself is handled in
Cartesian-like coordinates: We indicate the direction of a simple
line-trajectory by both (x,y,z) coordinates and -/+ signs for each
orthogonal dimension. This is pure poppycock, and a clumsy kluge. In
the real world there is no special direction that suddenly causes a
number to change from positive to negative. It's just an artifact of
our coordinate system. Why should a 1 degree clockwise change result in
a number becoming negative in one place, while there is no effect if
you are in a different orientation?

Now lets look at the physical case: If we do treat Time as an
orthogonal dimension or axis normal to the other dimensions, it becomes
an independant variable. As well, it is as directionless as any spacial
dimension. While this might appeal to those who believe that physical
laws are time-symmetrical, such a choice clearly has hidden
philosophical assumptions built into it.

And now, in your basic theory, suppose the Time Axis is moving. What
does this mean? It must mean that as you say, a stationary object in
3-space is moving at the speed of light in the Time dimension. It has
become another spacial dimension, but with a special property. The
problem is from a dimensional point of view, Time (the actual
coordinate numbers) could be moving in one of TWO directions, i.e.,
positively, or negatively. Moving backward in time should allow one to
increase the apparent speed of light. Forward would allow you to catch
up to 'Time', and experience Einstein's thought experiment of seeing a
'stationary' electromagnetic wave... But what happens? Does the
magnetic field vanish? Is there a 'sweet spot' in your 'speed'?

The basic problem is that if you want to be moving at the speed of
light on the time axis in ALL directions, you have to assume the Time
Dimension has a special kind of motion, non-directional, or rather
all-directional. The only thing that describes this case in my view
would be EXPANSION. That is, the Time Dimension would have to be
Dilating or Expanding at the speed of Light. In this case, its 'hooks'
would always move away at a fixed rate, regardless of other dimensions.
This would be something like Einstein's idea of the equivalence of
gravity and acceleration. (inertial and gravitational mass).

Dear Rogue Physicist,

You say that my ideas are not original. I have been searching for
similar ideas for ten years on the internet, and have not found them.
Could you please direct me to some similar ideas? Thanks!

You say, "The basic problem is that if you want to be moving at the
speed of light on the time axis in ALL directions, you have to assume
the Time Dimension has a special kind of motion, non-directional, or
rather all-directional. The only thing that describes this case in my
view would be EXPANSION. That is, the Time Dimension would have to be
Dilating or Expanding at the speed of Light. In this case, its 'hooks'
would always move away at a fixed rate, regardless of other dimensions.
This would be something like Einstein's idea of the equivalence of
gravity and acceleration. (inertial and gravitational mass)."

I have said many times that the time dimension appears as a spherically
symmetric expanding wavefront throughout the three spatial dimensions.
A photon, which represents a spherically expanding wavefront, is
momenergy rotated fully into time, orthogonal to the three spatial
dimensions.

A photon's energy is E=hf. h represents the distance momenergy can be
rotated into the time dimension. If you are trying to rotate more
momenrgy into the time dimension, the frequency will be higher,
representing the fact that you will have more fundamental units of
momenergy passing a given point p. So it is that the total momenergy of
a photon is E=hf.

h | | |
P
Low energy photon.

h |||||||||||||||||||||||||
P
High energy photon.

The time dimensiuon expands in incremental units of h in all directions
equally.

Think Huygen's Principle: as a photon expands, every point of its
expanding wavefront expands as a spherically symmetric wavefront.
NOTHING EVER ENTERS THE TIME DIMENSION DEEPER THAN h!!!

The expanding time dimension is orthogonal to the three spatial
dimensions, but it's only ever h deep!!!

Whenever a photon interacts with matter, it is brought out of the
expanding time dimension, and localized in the spatial dimensions. Thus
a massless photon, when caught by an electorn in an atom, ads mass to
the atom.

I quote myself:

"The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions."

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

mcGucken: Your idea should not be simply dismissed so lightly. It is a
novel and simple attempt to explain an empirical fact that arises when
trying to measure the speed of light. However, others are not satisfied
with your unfinished attempt to articulate and clarify your idea. This
idea is not new by the way, however, it would become the unique
property of the first person(s) to present a complete and coherent
exposition of it which was as practical as Special Relativity in
accounting for current facts and predicting new ones, as well as giving
an eloquent description that has less conceptual problems and paradoxes
than Special Relativity.

The idea of 'dimensions' moving relative to one another is not as
ludicrous as it seems, since in General Relativity space-time itself
has a structure and substance to it that is not mere mathematical
apparatus. In effect, GR is not a truly relativistic theory in the
Machian sense, but is as 'absolute space'-heavy as Newtonian Gravity.
Einstein failed to carry out Mach's agenda of a purely relative account
of motion and force, and instead actually made things worse by giving
the gravitational field a reality previously unknown, allowing it to
store energy/mass.

I mention this because if space-time itself has a reality and a
'position', or can act as an anchor or means to establish a kind of
absolute positional frame, there may be merit in considering only one
or two dimensions as having a 'substance' too, which implies detectable
effects and scientific tests. This would be an 'aether'-like effect.

My problem with your exposition is that it is not simpler than SR yet.
You are using terms and ideas borrowed from SR, like Minkowski
Space-time, and the perception of time and its relation to velocity,
yet have not clarified how your theory would use or define these ideas
differently, and this disturbs those who have clear definitions of the
concepts based upon SR.

For instance, one approach might be to study SR long and hard enough to
have mastered its concepts and flaws, thus putting yourself in a
position to provide an intelligent critique of SR first, to lay the
ground for your new theory and its concepts. In particular, you should
make the overlap and differences between the native concepts and
definitions of each theory clear. (And spell out the advantages and
trade-offs of each theory too.)

Right now, it appears to others that you are using concepts that are
borrowed from SR but not properly understood, since they haven't the
same meaning for you.

A good example is the concept of T versus t, and you should perhaps put
together some short thought-experiments to show why your interpretation
of time(s) is less paradoxical than SR.

One significant problem I think you are facing is that you are
accepting certain mathematical constructs and ideas uncritically, such
as Minkowski Spacetime (MS). Why should we use this mathematical
apparatus, and why not just stick with SR if we do so? How can your
account of causes and effects make better use of MS? Personally, I
think Minkowski Spacetime has played out its usefulness, but still
makes a good bumwipe. So why saddle yourself with mathematical
structures that have probably had their day? Why treat TIME as a
dimension at all? It may look cute on a paper graph or drawing, but do
we really have any business pretending that time is anything like
space? Sometimes mathematicians can be real idiots.

An example of the trouble that mathematical apparatus can cause is the
ad-hoc patchwork way in which direction itself is handled in
Cartesian-like coordinates: We indicate the direction of a simple
line-trajectory by both (x,y,z) coordinates and -/+ signs for each
orthogonal dimension. This is pure poppycock, and a clumsy kluge. In
the real world there is no special direction that suddenly causes a
number to change from positive to negative. It's just an artifact of
our coordinate system. Why should a 1 degree clockwise change result in
a number becoming negative in one place, while there is no effect if
you are in a different orientation?

Now lets look at the physical case: If we do treat Time as an
orthogonal dimension or axis normal to the other dimensions, it becomes
an independant variable. As well, it is as directionless as any spacial
dimension. While this might appeal to those who believe that physical
laws are time-symmetrical, such a choice clearly has hidden
philosophical assumptions built into it.

And now, in your basic theory, suppose the Time Axis is moving. What
does this mean? It must mean that as you say, a stationary object in
3-space is moving at the speed of light in the Time dimension. It has
become another spacial dimension, but with a special property. The
problem is from a dimensional point of view, Time (the actual
coordinate numbers) could be moving in one of TWO directions, i.e.,
positively, or negatively. Moving backward in time should allow one to
increase the apparent speed of light. Forward would allow you to catch
up to 'Time', and experience Einstein's thought experiment of seeing a
'stationary' electromagnetic wave... But what happens? Does the
magnetic field vanish? Is there a 'sweet spot' in your 'speed'?

The basic problem is that if you want to be moving at the speed of
light on the time axis in ALL directions, you have to assume the Time
Dimension has a special kind of motion, non-directional, or rather
all-directional. The only thing that describes this case in my view
would be EXPANSION. That is, the Time Dimension would have to be
Dilating or Expanding at the speed of Light. In this case, its 'hooks'
would always move away at a fixed rate, regardless of other dimensions.
This would be something like Einstein's idea of the equivalence of
gravity and acceleration. (inertial and gravitational mass).

Dear Rogue Physicist,

You say that my ideas are not original. I have been searching for
similar ideas for ten years on the internet, and have not found them.
Could you please direct me to some similar ideas? Thanks!

You say, "The basic problem is that if you want to be moving at the
speed of light on the time axis in ALL directions, you have to assume
the Time Dimension has a special kind of motion, non-directional, or
rather all-directional. The only thing that describes this case in my
view would be EXPANSION. That is, the Time Dimension would have to be
Dilating or Expanding at the speed of Light. In this case, its 'hooks'
would always move away at a fixed rate, regardless of other dimensions.
This would be something like Einstein's idea of the equivalence of
gravity and acceleration. (inertial and gravitational mass)."

I have said many times that the time dimension appears as a spherically
symmetric expanding wavefront throughout the three spatial dimensions.
A photon, which represents a spherically expanding wavefront, is
momenergy rotated fully into time, orthogonal to the three spatial
dimensions.

A photon's energy is E=hf. h represents the distance momenergy can be
rotated into the time dimension. If you are trying to rotate more
momenrgy into the time dimension, the frequency will be higher,
representing the fact that you will have more fundamental units of
momenergy passing a given point p. So it is that the total momenergy of
a photon is E=hf.

h | | |
P
Low energy photon.

h |||||||||||||||||||||||||
P
High energy photon.

The time dimensiuon expands in incremental units of h in all directions
equally.

Think Huygen's Principle: as a photon expands, every point of its
expanding wavefront expands as a spherically symmetric wavefront.
NOTHING EVER ENTERS THE TIME DIMENSION DEEPER THAN h!!!

The expanding time dimension is orthogonal to the three spatial
dimensions, but it's only ever h deep!!!

Whenever a photon interacts with matter, it is brought out of the
expanding time dimension, and localized in the spatial dimensions. Thus
a massless photon, when caught by an electorn in an atom, ads mass to
the atom.

I quote myself:

"The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions." --Dr. E

The Theory of Moving Dimensions: The Time Dimension is Moving Relative to The Three Spatial Dimensions

[Only registered users see links. ]

Join Date: Nov 2003
Posts: 16
Read my Journal

New Trends in Physics: Moving Dimensions, Time as a Vector
Hello,

There are some new trends in physics--time, the fourth dimension, is
not a static entity. It is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

[Only registered users see links. ]

The Theory of Moving Dimensions
Dr. Elliot McGucken [Only registered users see links. ]
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,
while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and
Relativity.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time
dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time
dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does
something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial
dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a
Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time
dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I
would very much like to hear about it.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0
or
x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes
x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
of light.

ct| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
|/_______________
x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at
the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
diminished.
Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.

The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions.

Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a
universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is
merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other
dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between
dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,
because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of
energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we
write as c.

Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the
speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of
energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,
such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a
mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which
liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is
propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy
itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time
dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.

Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase
in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object
resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length
contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains
velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated
into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light
the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent
from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a
particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability
that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in
essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial
dimension.

More can be read here

[Only registered users see links. ]

Thanks for your feedback.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Hello,

There are some new trends in physics--time, the fourth dimension, is
not a static entity. It is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

[Only registered users see links. ]

The Theory of Moving Dimensions
Dr. Elliot McGucken [Only registered users see links. ]
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,
while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and
Relativity.

Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time
dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time
dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does
something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial
dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a
Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time
dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I
would very much like to hear about it.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0
or
x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes
x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
of light.

ct| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
|/_______________
x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at
the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
diminished.
Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.

The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions.

Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a
universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is
merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other
dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between
dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,
because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of
energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we
write as c.

Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the
speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of
energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,
such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a
mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which
liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is
propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy
itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time
dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.

Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase
in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object
resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length
contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains
velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated
into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light
the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent
from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a
particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability
that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in
essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial
dimension.

More can be read here

[Only registered users see links. ]

Thanks for your feedback.

Elliot, yes a chnage in velocity is analogus to a roataion in
spacetime. In spacetime diagrams objects are not 'mving' they are
rperesnted by lines, this is the only sensible way to represnt them in
spacetime.

Talking about the speed of time relative to the sptial dimensions to me
any wya is total nonsense.

PS: The four-velocity of a photon is undefined.
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Old 02-22-2005, 04:06 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #3
mcgucken

Join Date: Nov 2003
Posts: 16
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Why is the speed of the time dimension relative to the spatial
dimensions nonsense to you?

Dimensions can move relative to one another.

Massive objects curve spacetime, as they move through space, stretching
local spacetime relative to distant spacetime. In order to stretch, the
local spacetime must move relative to distant spacetime.
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Old 02-22-2005, 04:12 PM · View Healey01's Warnings · #4
Healey01

Join Date: Aug 2004
Location: Albuquerque, NM
Posts: 216
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.

Saying wave-particle duality exists because wave-particle duality
exists is not a proof. I thought this was going to be a thorough paper.
I was wrong. I think my crackpot detector started going off when, while
reading this "paper", I saw the sentence
Quote:
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer

I didnt know Einsten knew about "teh" sources. I thought that was a
rather new development, like spellcheck.
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Old 02-22-2005, 04:16 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #5
mcgucken

Join Date: Nov 2003
Posts: 16
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I apologize for misspelling "the."

I have a newer version I'm working on.

Please consider this a draft.

Thanks,

Elliot
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Old 02-22-2005, 04:19 PM · View jcsd's Warnings · #6
jcsd

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The stement 'time moves relative to the spatial' diemnsions is just
nonsense it has no obvious emnaing and it's not even a good analogy

It doesn't make snese for two dimensiosn to move relative to each other
simply as this doe snot offers a clue to what you actually mean. When
two objects move rleative to each other this has the menaing that the
relative postions change as a function of t, for two diemnsions to move
relative to each other has no such well-defined menaing.

IF you're tlaking about graviational waves (thoguh in general rleativyt
movemnt through space tin any absolute snesne has little meaning as
dioes 'stretching spacetime'), then the spacetime itself is 'fixed'
it's the spatial slices that are not static.
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Old 02-22-2005, 05:25 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #7
mcgucken

Join Date: Nov 2003
Posts: 16
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let me try to say this differently
Picture a ruler along the z axis.

You can rotate it so that it points along the x axis.

It will grow shorter and shorter in the z direction, until its length
in the z direction is zero.

You can rotate the ruler into the time dimension.

It will grow shorter and shorter along the z axis.

But unlike when you roate it along the x axis, when you rotate it into
the time dimension, it will move.

Try it with a Lorentz transformation matrix, which represents a
rotation. When you rotate any object into the time dimension, it gains
velocity.

This is called a "boost."

The time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions.
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Old 02-22-2005, 05:40 PM · View Healey01's Warnings · #8
Healey01

Join Date: Aug 2004
Location: Albuquerque, NM
Posts: 216
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
I apologize for misspelling "the."

I have a newer version I'm working on.

Please consider this a draft.

Thanks,

Elliot

Ahh, Im sorry. When I first read it I thought that this was supposed to
have been a published article.

Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Picture a ruler along the z axis.

You can rotate it so that it points along the x axis.

It will grow shorter and shorter in the z direction, until its length
in the z direction is zero.

You can rotate the ruler into the time dimension.

It will grow shorter and shorter along the z axis.

But unlike when you roate it along the x axis, when you rotate it into
the time dimension, it will move.

Try it with a Lorentz transformation matrix, which represents a
rotation. When you rotate any object into the time dimension, it gains
velocity.

This is called a "boost."

The time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

I can agree with soem of this. Remember Time is not a spacial
dimension. And the last sentence is not a result of the previous
sentences. Its just thrown in there.
How can time move? dt/dt ? You do know what "motion" is correct? (im
not being sarcastic)
Last edited by Healey01 : 02-22-2005 at 05:43 PM.
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Old 02-22-2005, 06:21 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #9
mcgucken

Join Date: Nov 2003
Posts: 16
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brian greene makes a key point
An increase of an object's speed in space is always accompanied by a
decrease of an object's speed through time.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.

An increase of an object's speed in space is always accompanied by a
decrease of an object's speed through time.

What is time? We measure in relation to when an electron emits a
photon, whether it is a clock spring unwinding or a quartz crystal
oscillating.

When an electron accelerates, it is roated more into the moving time
dimenion.

Less time passes through it.

Think of time as a spherically expanding wavefront, which can carry
away photons.

The faster an electron travels, the less chance there is for it to emit
a photon. The less chance there is for a clock spring to unwind. Thus
time slows for moving clocks.

Thanks for your time,

Elliot
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Old 02-22-2005, 06:41 PM · View jcsd's Warnings · #10
jcsd

Join Date: Jun 2003
Location: Drowning in the Dirac sea
Posts: 2,098
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Picture a ruler along the z axis.

You can rotate it so that it points along the x axis.

It will grow shorter and shorter in the z direction, until its length
in the z direction is zero.

What you actually mean to say is that when your ruler is rotates so
it's pointing in the x axis, of it's projection onto the z axis is
zero.

Quote:
You can rotate the ruler into the time dimension.

It will grow shorter and shorter along the z axis.

But unlike when you roate it along the x axis, when you rotate it into
the time dimension, it will move.

Try it with a Lorentz transformation matrix, which represents a
rotation. When you rotate any object into the time dimension, it gains
velocity.

This is called a "boost."

Yes as I said I am quite happy to view the Lorentz transformation (the
set of all rotation's in a plane is SO(2) in 3 dimensional space it's
SO(3) and the set of Lorentz transformations is SO(3,1) ).

So far a uncontrovesrila, if a little muddled, but:

Quote:
The time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

It just doesn't follow or even make a reasonable amoutn of snese to say
this.
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Old 02-22-2005, 06:50 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #11
mcgucken

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Picture four dimensions--three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension.

An obejct can be rotated so that its projection along any particual
axis decreases.

When ian object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y,
and z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation, and an increase in the obejects velocity.

Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Best Regards,

Elliot
Last edited by mcgucken : 02-22-2005 at 10:01 PM.
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Old 02-22-2005, 07:03 PM · View jcsd's Warnings · #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Picture four dimensions--three time dimensions and one spatial
dimension.

An obejct can be rotated so that its projection along any particual
axis decreases.

When ian object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y,
and z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation, and an increase in the obejects velocity.

Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Best Regards,

Elliot

Well firstly you don't roate something in time or a direction/axis you
rotate it in a plane so a Lorentz boost is like a rotation in the x-t
plane (x being the direction of motion). If you rotate an object in the
x-t plane it's projections onto x-axis and the y-axis are unchanged
(this can be seen in the fact thta y' = y and z' = z, in the normal
form of the Lorentz transformation).

Lenght contarction and time dialtion can be seen as the fact that when
an object changes it's speed, in any given inertial coordinate system
it's projection onto the time and x axis changes.

You're miscomphrehension is cause by the fact that you are mixing and
matching your models, at one time we are using the block universe view
of spacetime and treating spacetime much like you would 3-D space, but
thta you are suddenly dancing back to the old version where time is an
absolute sperate entity from space.

I say it once more the idea that the time dimesion is moving is
literally just nonsense; it means very little.
Last edited by jcsd : 02-22-2005 at 07:15 PM.
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Old 02-22-2005, 07:22 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #13
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Hello,

I stand by every one of my statements. It appears you are arguing with
someone else.

1. Picture four dimensions--three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension.

2. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particularl axis decreases.

3. When an object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y,
and z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

4. Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation, and an increase in the obejects velocity.

5. Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

I know that this is a new and different way of looking things.

Best Regards,

Elliot
Last edited by mcgucken : 02-22-2005 at 10:00 PM.
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Old 02-22-2005, 08:38 PM · View selfAdjoint's Warnings · #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Hello,

1. Picture four dimensions--three time dimensions and one spatial
dimension.

OK

Quote:
2. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particularl axis decreases.

OK

Quote:
3. When an object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y,
and z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

Wait a minute. You said there were three time and one space dimensions.
Now you have "time" and x, y, and z. Did you misspeak before? Or here?
Ordinary relativity does this rotation, except that there is a negative
sign in the squared interval (= secretly an imaginary multiplier of
either the time or the three space coordinates) leading to the presence
of hyperbolic sines and cosines instead of the ordinary circular ones
in the rotation matrix.

Quote:
4. Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation, and an increase in the obejects velocity.

First clause true. Second clause false.

Quote:
5. Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Since the hypothesis is false (see #4), so is the conclusion.

Quote:
I know that this is a new and different way of looking things.

Not really, see Taylor and Wheeler's Spacetime Physics where the
rotation idea is done right.
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Old 02-22-2005, 08:39 PM · View jcsd's Warnings · #15
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Elliot, I have repsonded to what you have said.

Yes itis a different way of looking at things (perhaps it would be more
at home in the philsophy of scinece section), but my point is that it
is menaingless to say that the 'time dimension is moving' without firts
saying exactly what thta stament means (i.e. don't explain why the time
diemsnions moves, but define what it means|) and anyway as I have
pointed out, pedagogically it's not even a very useful analogy to make.

Perosnally I think if your going to view Lornetz boost as a roation
then logically velocity is nothing more than an angle (rapidity, which
is a fucntion of veloity, gives a good anaolgy with radians).
Last edited by jcsd : 02-22-2005 at 08:43 PM.
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Technical issues aside, does this approach yield any predictions that
differ, or are not made by GR?
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Old 02-22-2005, 10:13 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #17
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Hello!
Hello all--thanks for the feedback everyone.

Dark matter, string theory, and dark energy probably all belong in
"philosophy of science," as there is no proof for any of them.

Picture four dimensions--three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. (I corrected this from earlier).

An object can be rotated so that its projection along any particular
axis decreases.

When an object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y, and
z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation and an increase in the object's velocity. (Can anyone think
of an exception? Somebody said that this wasn't true, but I believe it
to be so. Thanks!)

Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

A Lorentz transformation *is* a rotation in spacetime. Was somebody
saying it wasn't?

I still think that all my above statements are correct.

Best Regards,

Elliot
Last edited by mcgucken : 02-22-2005 at 10:18 PM.
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Old 02-23-2005, 05:19 AM · View Chronos's Warnings · #18
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The question remains: What predictions are made? What benefits are
conferred by adopting this coordinate system?
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Old 02-23-2005, 01:08 PM · View Dr_Strangelove's Warnings · #19
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Predictions
Quote:
Originally Posted by Chronos
The question remains: What predictions are made? What benefits are
conferred by adopting this coordinate system?

I have been developing a theory based on time being directional.

I have it posted at: [Only registered users see links. ]

The obvious question I hear is that if time is a vector and increasing
in magnitude, what is it increasing relative to? The common expression
of linear motion is dx/dt, leaving one with the rather unexciting
proposition that time increases at dt/dt.

If time is the cause of all change then it doesn't mater how fast it
increases, What matters is that all change can be described in terms of
a component of time. Spatial motion is just c times a component of
time. If time speeds up or slows down or changes direction we would be
entirely oblivious to it since our very perception, all our equipment
etc is "driven" by a component of time. I wrote a little prelude
that makes this point clear. [Only registered users see links. ]

I have shown that treating time as a vector and linear motion as a
component of time, leads to not only a simple geometric explanation of
the Lorentz transforms but a simple geometric explanation of the Dirac
matrices. QFT theorists have developed a very cumbersome and abstract
connection via group theory and might, and in fact do argue that there
is no need for simplification.

So what's so exciting about treating time as a vector?

It gets real exciting when the direction of time at one point in
space/time is different then another. This becomes a whole new physics
with enormous possibilities that must at least be explored.

I actually predicted the Doppler anomaly seen on all distant space
craft before I knew that it had been observed.

I developed an equation for gravity that reduces to Newtons for objects
in close proximity relative to the center of the Galaxy and to a 1/r
formula for objects relative to the center. I later learned that the
MOND theory has been extremely successful using a 1/r formula.

I can explain the Hubble formula without the need for dark energy.

One prediction that my theory makes that hasn't even hit anyone's
radar screen yet is the quantum interference pattern observed with
fullerenes. I predicted that the peaks should be separated by a
distance that is less than that predicted by present formulas. I then
searched the web for evidence. I found it.
See: [Only registered users see links. ]
In this paper the authors successfully got fullerenes to exhibit wave
behavior. The tone of the paper is joyous at this achievement and they
either didn't notice or didn't care that the peak spacing observed
in the interference pattern was significantly less than present theory
would predict. They go through a sample calculation at a molecular
velocity of 200 m/s and conclude that the spacing should be 34 um
(micro meters). At this velocity and the grating to detector distance,
this should be extremely accurate. They then do the experiment using a
velocity of 117 m/s. At this velocity, using the same formulas, one
would calculate a peak spacing of 58 um. If you look at their figure 7,
the spacing is not 58 but around 50. Why did this happen? The reason is
simple. The molecules do not have a dual nature (wave and particle),
but rather become waves only after enough time has elapsed for them to
complete a cycle through space/time.

And then there is that unavoidable conclusion that anti-gravity must
exist.
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Old 02-23-2005, 02:47 PM · View jcsd's Warnings · #20
jcsd

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Quote:
Originally Posted by mcgucken
Hello all--thanks for the feedback everyone.

Dark matter, string theory, and dark energy probably all belong in
"philosophy of science," as there is no proof for any of them.

Picture four dimensions--three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. (I corrected this from earlier).

An object can be rotated so that its projection along any particular
axis decreases.

When an object is rotated into time, its projection along the x, y, and
z directions decreases. This is known as relativistic length
contraction.

Relativistic length contraction is *always* accompanied by time
dialation and an increase in the object's velocity. (Can anyone think
of an exception? Somebody said that this wasn't true, but I believe it
to be so. Thanks!)

Because rotating an object into the time dimension always results in
the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one
can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

A Lorentz transformation *is* a rotation in spacetime. Was somebody
saying it wasn't?

I still think that all my above statements are correct.

Best Regards,

Elliot

Dark matter, dark energy, string theory are theories/hypotheses and
they all make predictions or in principle cna make predictions, what
you have proposed makes no predictions and doesn't obviously mean
anything in particular

Yes I've said you can view Lornetz transformations as rotatations in
spacetime as it is an orthogonal transformation, thoguh I'm not sure if
the defintion of orientation-presevring covers Minkowski spacetime,
thoguh I'm sur eit could extended. However the analogy is obvious and
it seems to me to be perfectly reaosnable to view the set of Lorentz
transformations (which includes the set of spatial rotations) as the
set of roatations in spacetime, this is how like to view the LT at an
intutively level anyway.

It's just thta your conclusion doesn't really follow from this or even
make sense.
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Old 02-24-2005, 05:00 AM · View Chronos's Warnings · #21
Chronos

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dr_Strangelove
.... And then there is that unavoidable conclusion that anti-gravity
must exist.
I was nearly ready to address your other obfuscations, but, that
assertion set off my cowpie alarm.
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Old 02-26-2005, 04:29 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #22
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I have explained the -c^2 infront of the t coordinate
"What does my theory explain? What does my theory predict?"

My theory both explains and predicts the -c^2 infront of the t
coordinate.

Nobody has done this yet.

The four-dimensions of space-time are divided into three spatial
dimensions and one time dimension. In the space-time metric,
s^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2, the minus sign and c^2 distinguishes t from the
three spatial dimensions. Why the minus sign exists is most often
glossed over-it is considered to just "be" there. This paper
explains the minus sign by proposing that the time dimension, the
actual coordinate system, is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions. The time dimension is expanding at a rate of c relative to
the three spatial dimensions, in a spherically symmetric manner.

Many trained physicists have a knee-jerk reaction that the time
dimension cannot be moving because "dimensions cannot move." First
off, since the universe is expanding, space-time is also expanding,
showing that dimensions are moving and expanding. Secondly, general
relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp space-time, meaning
that as a massive object moves though space-time, it stretches
space-time, showing again that space-time in one area can move, or
deform, relative to space-time in another area. Rather than just
accepting the minus sign in front of the c^2t^2 as being there because
it just is there, this paper aims to look at the deeper reality which
gives rise to the minus sign. A physicist's job is not to accept
things on blind faith, nor only ask questions that are allowed to be
asked, but a physicist's job is to wonder. And that wonder, which
seems all but forgotten in the bureaucratization of modern physics,
leads to a deeper beauty.

That the time dimension is different somehow from the three spatial
dimensions is obvious. This difference is a result of the time
dimension moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

Picture four dimensions-three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particular axis decreases. When an object is rotated into time, its
projection along the x, y, and z directions decreases. This is known as
relativistic length contraction. Relativistic length contraction is
*always* accompanied by time dilation and an increase in the object's
velocity.

It is not possible to conduct a Lorentz transformation on a ruler,
where it is rotated into the time dimension, without the ruler gaining
a velocity through the three spatial dimensions. Because rotating an
object into the time dimension always results in the object gaining a
velocity relative to the spatial dimensions, one can conclude that the
time dimension must be moving.

Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:

I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independent of any relative motion of the source and the observer.

I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:

I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
dimensions.

This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
which traces a photon's path through space-time:

x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2=0
or
x^2+y^2+z^2=c^2t^2

Which for one spatial dimension becomes
x^2=c^2t^2

or x=ct

by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get

dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c

so

dx/dt = c

And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
of light.

ct | /
| /
| /
| /
| /
|/_______________
x

Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
only way for a photon to remain stationary in space-time is to move at
the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
moving relative to space.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate of
c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along the x
axis still shortens (Lorentz contraction), but now it begins to move
through the three spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed
of c through space-time. Again, we see it move through the three
spatial dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the
time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau), where
tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be
c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an
object's speed through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be
accompanied by a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed
through time, which also may be considered the rate at which time
elapses on it's own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with
that on our
stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
diminished.

Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.
Last edited by mcgucken : 02-27-2005 at 12:14 PM.
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Old 02-27-2005, 03:11 AM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #23
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The only way to stay stationary in space is to move through time with
the velocity of c (mass at rest).

The only way to stay stationary in time is to move through space with
the velocity of c (photon).

Thus the spatial dimensions and time dimensions are moving relative to
one-another.

How else to explain that by staying still in one, you are moving
through the other, and vice versa?
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Old 03-01-2005, 06:51 PM · View Alkatran's Warnings · #24
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Maybe that YOU'RE moving, and not TIME ITSELF. Yikes.
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Old 03-03-2005, 02:55 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #25
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Outline of Dr. E's Upcoming Paper on Moving Dimensions
Rest Energy:
Where does an object's rest energy come from? It comes from fact that
the expanding time dimension is moving, giving a stationary object a
velocity of c through space-time, even when the object appears at rest
on a lab table. This massive velocity relative to time, when translated
into the spatial dimensions via a Lorentz rotation of the velocity
4-vector, is manifested in energy. E=mc^2.

The Photon's Null Vector:
How can we be comfortable that an entity of zero length moves at the
speed of light? The only way for this to make sense is if the time
dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimension. A null vector in
space-time is defined by a photon, which moves at the velocity of light
through space-time. So it is that to have zero length in space-time, an
entity must translate through the three spatial dimensions at the
velocity of light. This notion of maintaining zero interval by a
velocity equal to c suggests that one of the coordinates, specifically
the time coordinate, is moving at a velocity c relative to the three
spatial coordinates.

The Notion of Standing Still in Space and Time:
The only way to remain stationary in space is to move through time with
a velocity of c. The only way to remain stationary in time is to move
through space with a velocity of c.
Thus the time and space dimensions must be moving relative to one
another.

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate of
c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along the x
axis still shortens (Lorentz contraction), but now it begins to move
through the three spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed
of c through space-time. Again, we see it move through the three
spatial dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the
time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau), where
tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be
c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an
object's speed through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be
accompanied by a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed
through time, which also may be considered the rate at which time
elapses on it's own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with
that on our stationary clock dt.

Conservation of Momemtum & Energy = Conservation of Momenergy

Red Shift

More Curvature = Slower Time:

Energy's Mass:
Energy has mass because energy is mass rotated fully into the moving
time dimension. Energy has zero rest mass, as mass represents the
component of an object that exists in the spatial dimensions, through
which time can expand.

Time Dilation:
Clocks slow down as they approach the speed of light, because they
catch up with the expanding time dimension. All clocks measure time
based on the emission of photons. The faster a clock travels, the less
chance there is for it to emit a photon, as the photon will be
reabsorbed.

Constancy of c in all frames:
The measurement of time is always measured with some mechanism that is
based on the propagation of photons, whether it be photons in a clock
spring or photons in a quartz crystal. Hence, when we measure the speed
of light in a frame, we are always measuring it relative to a mechanism
based on the speed of light in that frame. Hence the velocity of light
is always viewed as a constant in all frames.

Length Contraction:
Picture four dimensions-three spatial dimensions and one time
dimension. An object can be rotated so that its projection along any
particular axis decreases. When an object is rotated into time, its
projection along the x, y, and z directions decreases. This is known as
relativistic length contraction. Relativistic length contraction is
*always* accompanied by time dilation and an increase in the object's
velocity. Because rotating an object along the time dimension always
results in the object gaining a velocity relative to the spatial
dimensions, one can conclude that the time dimension must be moving.

Spherical Symmetry of Photon Propagation:
Quantum mechanics teaches us that a photon propagates as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront. This is because a photon is mass
rotated into the time dimension, which is expanding as a
spherically-symmetric wavefront.

Spherical Symmetry of Time Expansion through Three Dimensions:
The projection of a sphere in two dimensions is a circle. The
projection of the fourth dimension in three dimensions is a sphere. And
because this fourth dimension, time, is expanding, it appears as an
expanding sphere. For a photon to stay stationary in time, it moves
through space with a velocity of c. Think about that-the photon stays
stationary in time, while moving at a velocity of c relative to the
three spatial diemensions. It expands as a spherically symmetrical
wavefront by staying stationary in time. Therefore, time must be
expanding in a spherically symmetric manner throughout space.

Rest Mass Is Invariant
Rest mass represents an entity that exists fully in space. It is
invariant.

Increase of System Mass:
As an object accelerates through space-time, the mass of the system
increases as energy is added. The rest mass remains invariant, but it
is pulled along through space-time by interacting with photons, which
in turn no longer travel the speed of light. When photons interact with
matter, matter accelerates, while photons slow down.

Entropy:
Because time is expanding as a spherically symmetric wavefront through
the three spatial dimensions, photons, as well as all matter that
interacts with photons, have a probability to move in a spherically
symmetric manner. Thus, if we have a clump of atoms in the middles of a
room, a probability exists for the atoms to spread apart in a
spherically symmetric manner.

The - c2t2 in the space-time metric
The four dimensions of space-time are divided into three spatial
dimensions and one time dimension. In the space-time metric, where ds
is an invariant expressed as\ ds^2=x^2+y^2+z^2-c^2t^2, the minus sign
and c^2 distinguishes the t coordinate from the three spatial
coordinates. Why the minus sign exists is most often glossed over-it
is considered to just "be" there, because it is there.

That the time dimension is different somehow from the three spatial
dimensions is obvious. This difference is a result of the time
dimension moving relative to the spatial dimensions.

Planck's constant

Fundamental Wave Nature
The fundamental wave nature of all matter is based upon the fundamental
wave nature of space-time.

Wave-Particle Duality
Wave particle duality is a result of measurements of objects
interacting upon a canvas of space and time dimensions that are moving
relative to one another. Wave behavior, or interference, results when
two photons interfere in the time dimension as it propagates through
space. Particle behavior results when a photon interacts with an
electron, when it is taken out of the moving time dimension and
localized in the static spatial dimensions, being caught by the
electron.

Philosophical and Physical Barriers to Moving Dimensions
Many trained physicists have a knee-jerk reaction that the time
dimension cannot be moving because "dimensions cannot move." First
off, since the universe is expanding, space-time is also expanding,
demonstrating that dimensions are moving and expanding. Secondly,
general relativity demonstrates that massive objects warp space-time,
meaning that as a massive object moves though space-time, it stretches
space-time, showing again that space-time in one area can move, or
deform, relative to space-time in another area. Thus there exist
neither philosophical nor physical barriers to the concept of moving
dimensions, but for artificial ones within lazy minds.

Rather than just accepting the minus sign in front of the c^2t^2 as
being there because it "just is there," this paper aims to look at
the deeper reality which gives rise to the minus sign. A physicist's
job is not to accept things on blind faith, nor only ask questions that
are allowed to be asked, but a physicist's job is to wonder. And that
wonder, which seems all but forgotten in the bureaucratization of
modern physics, leads to the deeper beauty. "Imagination is more
important than knowledge," was how one physicist put it.

Increasing Energy Increases Momentum

Conservation of Dimension

Gravity

Red Shift

The Increase of Mass With Velocity

Conclusion:
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena found in relativity and quantum mechanics. The
constant speed of light, time dilation, Lorentzian contraction,
wave-particle duality, the equivalence of mass and energy, the
gravitational red-shift, and the second law of thermodynamics may all
be explained on a deeper level by a theory of moving dimensions. Such a
theory may also offer a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics
and Relativity.

The only way to stay still in the three spatial dimensions is to move
at the velocity of light c through time. The only way to stay still in
the time dimension is to move at the velocity of light c through space.
How else can this be explained, but with space and time coordinates are
in motion relative to one-another?

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Old 03-11-2005, 05:27 AM · View Beyond-Numbers's Warnings · #26
Beyond-Numbers

Join Date: Mar 2005
Location: Ontario,CA
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Time, I theorize, is not a dimention. Not the 4th or 5th or whatever
you want to call it. As much as you probably would like to, you can't
move in and out of time. Therefore it is not a dimention. 1, 2, and 3
are the agreed upon existing dimentions. Time as the 4th is
speculative. What I have done is analize the unanswered question, Why
does the universe appear to have one time and three space
dimensions?... as asked at the Strings2000 Conference in Michigan, July
10-15, 2000. My answer:
Time is NOT a dimension. It is a tool/way to observe the observable
Universes dimensions as it changes/moves. Time is what is perceived as
happening during the transition of photons from point A to B. This
could also be the reason for so-called "sonoluminesence". Photons
regulate the Universal top speed at their own pace. (we get the speed
of light) If the observable transition of photons from point A to point
B was disallowed, photons could be observed not to be in motion from A
to B to C etc...but as a single observed point in the 3 dimensions
along the XYZ axes. Would time cease to exist for those photons? Now
that we have these photons that seem not to "move", stuck at point C,
the energy that was supposed to be released as an observable transition
from point C to D to E...etc... is now focused on point C; as opposed
to evenly dispersed from A through infinity. That energy is measurable
in heat (thousands, perhaps 10's of thousands of Kelvin apparently) and
observable as a point of concentrated light. But, they are photons and
must remain in motion at C. We have 3 supposed dimentions of travel. We
get up, down, left, right and everything diagonally in between. What
about in and out? For every action there is an equal and opposite
reaction. If a photon is denied XYZ axis, 1,2,3D motion there must be a
reaction to this denial of motion. We may get "in out" motion until
regular dimension travel is restored. What i mean by that is that it
exists here now, it doesn't, it exists here now, it doesn't...etc. This
may be tied into Flux Theory as I understand it and more or less solve
the sonoluminesence issue.
If you really think about it, there is no such thing as time dilation.
You are just naming something that you observed and is normal and HAS
TO happen. If photons were self aware, they would not notice that time
dilation. Even as they fell further into a blackhole time would seem to
pass as normal as could be because as those photons fall, their ability
to observe is diminishing/distorting at approximately the same rate.
You just said, yourself, "Imagination is more important than
knowledge". Yes, see past your math and numbers, they will point you in
a general direction. You can't number everything.
Last edited by Beyond-Numbers : 03-11-2005 at 05:29 AM.
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Old 06-02-2005, 02:47 PM · View mcgucken's Warnings · #27
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Briane Greene Agrees [Only registered users see links. ]

Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.

As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.

As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
diminished.
Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
reality.

Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.

As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
begins to move.

Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.