Gravity As Thermodynamics:
The Explanation For The Universe.
There is a fear among thinkers too clever for their
own good that perhaps none of them may prove to be
sufficiently smart to understand the universe. Yet,
unsuspected by them, it is not that they are not smart
enough to understand the universe but that they are
too smart... and instead of seeking to understand they
instead apply their nervous creativity to dreaming up
overly-clever (and ultimately purely imaginative)
illusions--an accomplishment which may be the glory of
literary fiction, but is forever the bane of science.
The purpose of science is to explain the inevitability
of the process--nothing more, nothing less, nothing
else: And not merely/only to seek/to find that
inevitability but to explain it (in effect, to
usefully demonstrate it). And any endeavor which does
not do this is only pastime, merely an entertainment,
a private diversion... but certainly not science.
Now: It is no great novelty to suggest a relationship
between gravity and thermodynamics nowadays [as with
the thermodynamics analogy of a lightning bolt's "path
of least resistance" later on in my text]. But, to my
knowledge, this is the first ever comprehensive
explanation of the universe in terms of the
inevitability of thermodynamics--or, why and exactly
how it is that "gravity" (the "flow" of energy) is the
inevitable (and therefore perfectly natural) phenomena
it is in the universe.
Since I am not here going to give merely one more
description of the visible universe but am actually
going to show the causes behind its observed effects,
there will be no resorting here either to supernatural
interpretations (uninformed guessing and other leaps
of faith) or to the "usual" mathematical obfuscations
(the mere reduction of manifest observations to
exacting measurements) behind which the absence of
actual basic knowledge has habitually been veiled.
There are no mysteries in nature, there is only the
The first problem to be solved is the prohibition
against the creation/destruction of "energy," as
embodied in the question of what could have "been
there" before there was a universe of visible matter.
And the preferred tool for accomplishing this is the
one which allows us to inquire into levels of
existence outside our physical reach: Namely, an
abiding conviction that the laws of physics apply
across ALL levels of existence and not merely at some
of them while not at others [including the statistical
research of probability & quantum theory].
But, motion without matter...? Our brains evolved to
"believe" that only "concretely material" or "solid"
objects have existence. Yet our prejudiced sanction of
"matter" alone as the only "solid material" that
"exists" is in conflict with what the universe keeps
telling us "really exists" (or, has real "permanent"
existence). For, insist as we may (to the universe)
that "matter" is "what exists," the universe always
insists to us that "what really exists" (in fact, "the
only thing which really exists") is "momentary"
matter's truly "permanent" constituent: "energy."
["Matter" can be taken apart, but not so "energy."]
Moreover, now we know that the "solidness" of matter
is an "illusion" created by interactions between the
electro-magnetic, the weak, and the strong "nuclear
WE: If it's not "matter" it doesn't exist.
THE UNIVERSE: The "reality" of matter is no different
than the reality of all those "forms" you "recognize"
sketched in the passing clouds by the power of your
own imagination alone: Just as those "cloud forms" are
in no way fundamental (insoluble & indivisible) and
the least breeze tears them to shreds (into some other
"forms")... none of which has any relevance to the
question of the continuing existence of clouds, so too
ALL "the forms of matter" are but "fortuitous forms"
(so-called "gravitational systems") which can also be
torn to shreds (into other just as "fortuitous forms")
without this having any bearing whatsoever on the
question of the continuing existence of "energy" (or,
the "clouds" from which the "forms of matter" are
made). And this holds true even if the forms are
imposed on you by the universe rather than your
imagination imposing them on the universe.
This has been the one hurdle that has kept previous
theorists from following the line of inquiry we are
taking here: Just as it was only after mankind finally
accepted the fact that the earth moved (and was not
the fixed center around which orbited the rest of the
universe) that mankind was finally able to achieve the
greater perspective we've enjoyed since... so too, it
is only when we finally give up the human prejudice
that "the forms of matter are absolute" (that they are
the fundamental, immutable & indivisible objects with
whose destruction "existence" itself ceases to be--or
that there are even such things), that it then becomes
possible for us to achieve the next great perspective.
This notion that there exist "immutable and
indivisible objects with whose destruction
existence itself ceases to be" is an ancient human
superstition which should have been dropped once it
was clear that the Greek proposal for just such an
indivisible particulate (the "atom") was no longer
tenable. Yet to this day we're still drowning in
quite unforgivable proposals for exactly such
indivisible "particulates" (or "strings" now).
However, had Einstein (at the moment when he was
mulling why it might be that, given the existence of
gravity, the universe had not collapsed into a pile of
"fundamental matter")... had Einstein been able to
consider that such a "collapse" (implosion) would not
produce anything other than the "forms of matter"
always continuing to adjust to the implosion of the
universe in some relativistic natural process [whereby
"larger and slower" forms forever continue to evolve
(or, "conserve" themselves, their angular momentum)
into "smaller/ faster" ones], perhaps modern physics
might have been spared the last hundred years'
nonsensical excursions into the theatre of the absurd
(with its "time-travel" and "alternate dimensions"
science fiction scripts). And then the unexpected
discovery of Hubble's Constant (that the galaxies are
receding from each other at an everywhere uniform rate
depending on their distances) could have been
understood for what it really is --a clear reflection
on the grand scale of that process of "larger/slower
forms" evolving "smaller but faster" ones which is
necessarily creating distance (or, "space") between
themselves. [As well as hinting that there might
indeed yet be at least one state "at absolute rest" in
the universe... by which (against which) all eternally
shifting local effects might be measured.]
Energy vs. Matter... or, Something vs. Nothing?
Too late for Einstein, we begin here from the specific
proposition that there is no fundamental difference
between "matter" and the "primordial material" (some
may term "scalar mass" or simply "energy") and that
they are but merely two levels of the same single
process of "matter-organization" (simply many orders
of magnitude distant from each other). That ultimately
there are only "relative differences" in "densities"
(or "energy values"), and certainly not a fundamental
shift from "energy" to "matter" as profound as that
from "non-existence" to "existence."
Existence cannot be created or destroyed (exactly
the same as with "energy" since that's exactly what
it is). Existence/energy is all there is, all that
ever was, and all that there will ever be. And only
the laws of thermodynamics convert/conserve/move it
from one form/value/concentration to another
Certainly "the primordial state of existence" (the
primordial "scalar mass" or "temperature" in the sense
of "a given energy value") can never have been an
all-or-nothing (absolute) one, but must have instead
always been an entirely relativistic "state") because
otherwise the outbreak of (to) "existence" requires a
"leap" to "something" from "nothing" (in effect: it
has to be the result of magic). And this is not only a
clear violation of the laws of physics, but
consequently not even a proper subject for science.
The question of "a mathematical infinity" never
comes into what is essentially a choice offered by
the laws of physics (whether or not "something"
can come out of "nothing")... and not the sort of
mathematical game exemplified when, say, a new
guest shows up at, "Hilbert's Hotel Infinity" and
the clerk claims that all rooms are full--forcing
the new guest to explain that if the hotel is
"full but infinite" the clerk can simply make the
guest in room 1 move into room 2, move the
original guest in room 2 into room 3, and the
guest in room 3 into room 4, and so on...
depriving no guest of a room but vacating room 1
into which any new guest can then move. i.e. The
supposed paradox (like all paradoxes) is
artificially created when the clerk erroneously
claims that "Hilbert's Hotel Infinity" can ever be
"full." [There are no paradoxes in nature, only in
Acknowledging that "the process of existence itself"
is one of evolution (or, that "existence has always
existed," as it were) eliminates once & for all the
strictly human (mental) "paradox" that existence must
"originate" with/as some supernatural Big Bang
(special creation) miracle.
Let us posit instead a "given volume of space" ("the
void"), its "absolute" energy value (the absolute
density of "its whatever material") being irrelevant
because as long as that density is purely/solely
"relativistic" there can be no "lowest limit" to how
tenuous/sparse it can be and still "exist." And this
then is the "spatial volume" or, more properly, the
"scalar mass" [traditionally termed "the void"]. From
our perspective: about as close to infinitely immense
as such a thought is humanly possible; that is...
without ever permitting time to bring to an end the
process of continuing to imagine its immensity.
It quickly becomes clear how unusual (provided such a
"volume of space" has ANY "energy value" or "density"
at all), how unusual it would be if such an infinitely
vast spatial volume could maintain the same identical
"density" or "energy value" across the entirety of its
unlimited [not to mention: eternally increasing]
vastness... regardless how low that energy value or
density may be "in absolute terms" which do not apply,
remember, because an "absolute" condition of existence
demands some absolute lower limit dropping below which
"the thing" no longer exists. And, since we exist, it
behooves us to assume that the density/energy value of
the scalar mass always had to have been "relativistic"
and never "all-or-nothing" or "absolute." [Not to
mention the fact that to measure anything one must
measure it against "something else," and "existence"
is all that exists, or obviously "the only thing" that
In an exclusively "relativistic" context then (one in
which the "density" of any given "volume of space" is
always merely "relatively" higher or lower than those
of "other" volumes of space, and NOT "absolutely"
EITHER existent OR nonexistent): there will always be
"enough" energy (if you will: "a difference" in
"pressures" or "temperatures") already present in
"even such primordial" a condition to literally "fuel"
everything which may "proportionally" evolve from it
--because it's in the nature of "energy" as we have
come to understand it (and no less in the cosmic
relativity of existence we are discussing here), it is
in the nature of "energy" to be (to also "hold")
purely a thermodynamic "potential" for "work."
More aptly: "for motion" ... replacing the term
"work" with "motion" since we are certainly not
going to speak here of "motion without matter."
[Energy being "what matter does." Remember:
"existence = energy"] Therefore... "if matter is
merely energy, matter is also merely motion" (so
that: "there has always been motion" is what we
really mean when we say that "existence has always
existed"). Again: All "the forms of matter" are
merely "larger/slower" forms becoming/evolving/
conserving themselves into "smaller/faster ones."
Or, from the diametrically opposite perspective
(not an entirely unreasonable one, so we'll be
discussing it later)... all the "forms of energy"
can be thought of as the (denser) faster/smaller
forms of energy conserving themselves into
larger/slower (more dispersed) ones.
As far as the requirements of "motion" go... the
direction of "flow" is irrelevant ("into" will "work"
just as well as "out of"). It's a mistake to belive
that what's thermodynamically required for "energy" to
"perform work" [the term "work" from classical
mechanics' "product of force/distance"], that what is
thermodynamically required for "energy" to "perform
work" is, say, "a boiler-full of heated water" when
the sole requirement (for the universe to "work") is
that a thermodynamic current "flows" (the sole
origin/source of "motion"). Therefore the singular
objection to existence is that it not be absolute (or,
"all-or-nothing") given that "absolute stillness" has
no way of "pushing off" itself, as it were.
In the primordial condition of existence, in which one
single elementary (homogeneous) principle constitutes
the sum total of "everything/the material" from which
all subsequent diversity arises (the evolution of more
complex forms from simpler ones, or even a single one)
existence can only "flow" [note the always inescapable
definition of "existence" as "motion"], existence can
only "flow" from this clearly singularly relativistic
state rather than from being arbitrarily forced by a
human superstition to "flow" from some impossible
(magical) "boiler" [or "Big Bang" furnace/mixture] of
many already complex primordial states (independent
settings) clearly violating creation/destruction laws
of energy in some impossible all-or-nothing universe.
With respect to this principle of evolution: If one
considers the present universe just in light of the
proposed "string" theories: one can hardly help
noticing that the present universe is in many, many
ways a very elegantly simple concept compared to
the notorious complexity of string theories from
which it is supposed to "originate" (from which it
"subsequently evolves"). Something which is clearly
a logical violation of the principle of evolution.
As difficult as it may be to "find" in the primordial
"void" a "volume of space" with a density lower than
that of the rest of existence, in the first place...
that much more difficult is it to even imagine where
and how one might possibly (necessarily) "create" a
volume with an even higher density, to begin with (or,
the infamous Big Bang "boiler" of inflationary
models). So the universe (everything that "follows"
from "the primordial state") is a lot more likely to
begin with the former (or "an evolution" from/of
simpler forms) rather than with the latter (some
"special creation" Big Bang already complex from its
start). And keep in mind that even if one such "Big
Bang boiler" could somehow be "produced" (at the
"onset of it all")... its destiny surely would be
dilution and dissipation, and certainly NOT the
concentration and amalgamation which obviously goes
into the organization of ever more & more complex
forms of matter.]
It is irrelevant whether "the void" comes upon a
bubble/area ("hollow") of lesser density (the
"egg" that incubates our universe of matter) or
such a "hollow" comes into being somewhere within
"the void" (my own preference because this makes
for a balanced/stable universe in which matter and
anti-matter regions balance out each other, making
it easier to understand why it is that one form
predominates in a given "side" of the universe
even as the other form may be the most common one
in the "opposite" side of the same universe.
We will always return to this same point of departure:
All that is required for the homogeneous "primordial
medium" to (perform) "work" [i.e. for "the void" to
produce an already perfect/complete machine] is for
"the void" (no matter how unimaginably tenuous and
sparse its "density") to come into contact with
another volume of space "region" or "hollow" (as we
shall term it here) having an even lower density.
And, for the purpose of illustrating more easily
the "gravitational" evolution of the visible
universe, we will "assume" in this text that "our"
lesser density "hollow" was more or less completely
and entirely (and perhaps even perfectly)
encompassed by the greater density "the void."
Though common sense rules this out (just as, given
their origin, its "discrete bits" could never have
been perfectly equidistant from each other). But we
will still speak of it this way so we may refer to
the universe as having a perfectly spherical shape
it can't in fact possibly have.
As the primordial medium of the "the void" encounters
our "hollow" of lesser density, its greater density
"collapses" our lesser density hollow (collapses into
it, that is), sending (crucially for the creation of
our universe of visible matter at its center), sending
a "shockwave" of higher density "material" into our
"hollow" from every point around it. [This "shockwave"
of inrushing material effectively represents pretty
much the sum total of all the "energy" our visible
universe is ever destined to have, by the way.] This
imploding pressure wave eventually "condensing" into
what we call matter somewhere along the way.
There still being people who think the earth is
"flat" (and many who believe it is the universe
that orbits the earth--and perhaps there are always
going to be such people): somewhere around here
advocates of inflationary models "may be tempted to
think" that the cosmic collapse of the void's
primordial material (energy) into our lower-
density "hollow" may well be describing a rationale
for their cherished Big Bang model... as "matter"
crashes against a pinpoint quantum center and then
erupts/echoes back out like 3-dimensional ripples
following the dropping of a pebble into a lake...
rescuing the ancient superstition that there can
be, after all, some fundamental particle from which
everything else is made... never mind the fact that
this idea leaves us forever unable to explain how a
necessarily mythological fundamental object like
"matter" could have possibly come into being (out
of non-being) in the first place--and "necessarily
mythological" because we can never describe a
particulate of matter in our universe we can with
any degree of certainly assure ourselves is forever
immutable and indivisible (even strings' own theory
places them neither altogether in our universe nor
altogether outside it). But as antidote to this Big
Bang superstition, keep in mind that all the forms
of matter will condense for a brief time and then
"just as quickly" dematerialize. [It's rather
likely that we are at the only point along the
shifting phases of matter-organization from
beginning to end of our universe where life is
By definition, an indivisible body or object is hardly
likely to be made up of two or more bodies or
objects... as this would "by definition" make such a
body or object, at least theoretically, really already
very divisible indeed.
Then again, gravity itself would continue to remain
the inexplicable (seemingly magical) "force" we've
thought it until now--And the purpose of this very
text is to explain how gravity is not some magical
unfathomable "force" (of attraction or of anything
else) but really only the mistaken description of a
perfectly inevitable and natural effect which up to
now remained impossible to interpret perfectly.
What Is The Universe REALLY Doing?
The imploding universe is undertaking two crucial
motions at the same time: an absolute motion and a
relativistic one. We can actually "see" these two
motions in action if we but know from where (from
which perspective) to look:
Imagine the universe to be an earth-size globe. If
we then abstract "ourselves" from it, from now on
forever remaining unaffected by its shifting
sizes, we can "see" both the absolute and the
relativistic motions the universe is undertaking
by considering two men standing on opposite sides
of this imploding/shrinking globe universe.
The globe is shrinking in an absolute sense, so in an
absolute sense the two men are always moving towards
each other. [This absolute motion is very much
apparent to us all because it's the effect we have
come to know as gravity.] However, because they and
everything else in their globe universe is shrinking
everywhere at a constant rate... in the normal course
of events neither of the two men standing on opposite
side of the globe universe will ever notice that they
are moving towards each other absolutely. Instead they
will forever marvel how/why they seem to "stick" to
the globe as if by magic and not "float" away into
space. [And if they happen to be scientists and
understand the Standard Model they might assume that
gravity must be mediated by gravitons & then they will
waste their lives trying to make up a Unified Field
Theory encompassing gravity and particle forces. But
you can see why the geometry of Einstein relativity
describes gravity better than the forces of Newton.]
The shrinking of everything at an universally
constant rate (so that everything appears to
remain relativistically frozen in place/size) is
itself the second motion: It is nearly impossible
to notice at very close proximities (least of all
by two such beings standing across a common lump
of matter)... but it can certainly be "seen" when
glancing across astronomical distances (and we
call this very visible effect the Hubble Constant,
which makes it appear as if the galaxies are
receding faster from each other the more distant
from each other they are). [Although one can
substitute "time" for "distance" and "witness" it
in practically every object that orbits another
To understand this purely relativistic effect (of
course in reality all the galaxies necessarily must
be "absolutely" getting closer and closer inside an
imploding universe)... one has only to consider the
nature of space (in other words, all ones has to do
is consider it) as the distance between bodies of
matter: Where does it come from? How can there be
any "spaces" at all in the single ("solid") body
which the universe of matter must be from the very
first instants of its "massing" in its cosmic
Well, our universe is very large, and the same laws of
thermodynamics which inevitably create the "hollow"
into which the higher densities of "the voids" flows
now literally tear the "solid" universe into "bits."
And it is at the level of these bits that the body of
the universe continues to implode... so that from here
on out every one of these "bits" begins to implode
away from all the other bits about it forever FASTER
than the single body of the universe itself can
"stuff" those opening spaces: At first there is very
little "space" between the numberless bits, but given
enough time and whatever form the "bits" of the
imploding universe eventually take as they evolve &
revolve in every more complex interactions (galaxies
in our epoch of the universe)... you can see how the
distances between them can grow to unimaginably
astronomical distances (into a "lot" of space indeed).
At first, the "absolute" (viewed from outside our
"cosmic hollow")... the "absolute" motion of this
thermodynamic "penetrating shockwave"
(flow/current) is undoubtedly always "moving" only
in the direction of our cosmic hollow's logical
center [a "center" which can probably only be
"pinpointed" by quantum theory, since obviously
anything introduced into the "hollow" to measure
the position of its "absolute center" would
necessarily shift it---thereby finally making it
clear that the world of the very big(gest, really)
behaves exactly like the world of the very
smal(lest) except perhaps in small minds]. But now
you understand how without a particle interaction
between them two objects can establish an "orbital"
relationship about a so-called "center of gravity."
To say "the world of the very small" is to say "the
world of the very near." In a universe undergoing
implosion the human perspective stares out both to a
much bigger/distant world and to a much smaller/nearer
one from somewhere in the middle: The more
distant/bigger world always appears to be growing
bigger and more distant relativistically; while the
smaller/nearer world always appears to be growing ever
smaller and nearer in an absolute sense (gravity).
This holds true across the full spectrum of possible
perspectives (the view from within the universe is
also always relativistic, while seen from outside it
the universe would appear to be alsolutely "shrinking"
As the observer is also imploding, when he looks at
"the world he's leaving behind" it appears to him to
be big (and the farther away he looks at it the bigger
it appears to always be growing), while when he looks
at "the world into which he is moving" it appears to
him to be small (and the closer he looks into it the
smaller it appears).
Counterintuitively, it appears to us as if the
world of the very small is a chaotic one (forever
shifting its geometric centers), while in reality
it is the one behaving in an absolute way: The
world of the very big may appear to be stable as it
grows bigger and more distant... but in reality it
is growing neither bigger nor more distant at all.
Three very specific basic "motions" will describe the
nature of the universe from the instant "the void"
encounters (one of) these cosmic "hollows" of lesser
density which "nurse" entire universes of matter at
their core. But I do not include one of these three
Basic Motions of Matter (the "pressure shock" of the
general void's greater density "falling" into our
cosmic "hollow" as it is strictly a 3-dimensional
motion towards the "center of "our hollow" up until
such material fully saturates it). Essentially, all
the "falling" primordial material pressurizing itself
"solidly" in place. I leave out this "motion" because
I don't see it playing any further role in the
processes that keep our universe in its continuing
At its point (of "highest saturation") this singular
homogeneous "solid" mass (call it a "cloud" or call it
a "body" of energy) destined to become our universe of
visible matter, now finds it has no place to go from
here other than to be (literally forever) squeezed
into an always smaller & smaller volume of space (for
the very reason that, exactly like every other "thing"
that exists... it too is neither fundamentally solid
nor immutable and therefore can not refuse to be so
squeezed)... effectively causing it to "implode" in an
"absolute" sense: forever to grow "smaller & smaller"
as it is forced to occupy an ever diminishing volume
of space--the originally homogeneous "solid" mass now
very much literally tearing itself to bits--that is...
into "discrete bits" (each a self-contained system
forever "winding itself up" in a lifelong strategy
designed by the laws of physics to "conserve" its
eternally increasing angular momentum--which must from
now on always increase, as said before, as larger-but-
slower systems "conserve themselves" into smaller-but-
faster ones)... until they all eventually pay the
ultimate price of dissolution. (But that's far off in
the future at this point.)
Nonetheless: note the origin of "space" as merely the
"distance" between these primordial discrete bits: A
process (of space-creation) which has not stopped to
this day; and which at the topmost level of matter-
organization (that of stars and galaxies) is "easily"
observable by us as the Hubble Constant. But a process
which is forever on-going at ALL levels of matter-
"A" given level of matter-organization is one which
reflects a stage (or state) at which the "local
gatherings of interacting "bits" or "clusters of
them" (or "gravitational systems") nevertheless
begin to behave (or to be thought of) as if they
were one single object (giving the impression of
having no individual constituent parts within it).
We may begin to trace the history of these matter-
organization "levels" from a point where the entire
mass of the "visible universe" could be thought of
as one single homogeneous mass (or "cloud") which
has just completely saturated the "center" of the
cosmic hollow into which the primordial material of
the higher-density "the void" surrounding it has
fallen. (And it's not important for us here whether
the "saturation" fills the cosmic hollow completely
of merely a given area about its center.)
The crucial thing is that it is at this point that
this once "one" solid body begins to "tear itself
apart" (or, more to the point, to "bits"). More
specifically still: necessarily into fully discrete
"bits" (and "necessary" because it's the simplest way
that the resulting sum of all such "bits" [once one
solid body, and before that a "shockwave" of
primordial material falling from "the void"
surrounding our cosmic hollow]... can "squeeze" into
the eternally diminishing area available to it as it
continues its journey toward the center of our cosmic
hollow--And since there is literally nothing in its
way towards that "center" against which to crash (to
stop its journey) except itself (its own nonexistent
refusal to permit itself to be squeezed any
further)... that journey is one which can only end
in/with the utter dissolution of the falling body
("cloud" or "sum of discrete bits").
Crucially, all of those "fully discrete bits" are
tearing themselves away from all the other discrete
bits in the cosmic body (creating "space" between
themselves) as they "implode."
To begin with, once the entire mass (body, cloud) of
our universe consists only (or even mostly) of these
(same-sized or same-wherever) discrete bits, by
definition they will effectively collectively
constitute our universe's first ever "perfected" or
finished" level of matter-organization (the first
generation of matter-organization).
Because of the natural chaos which characterizes any
active thermodynamic system (since evolution never
stands still, in effect): eventually those
"individual" discrete bits will begin to "fall" into
local interactions (systems of "orbits" and/or
crashes) each made up of perhaps only a few discrete
bits (in ever continuing interactions) and perhaps
each of them made up of many and many handfuls of the
"original" first-generation discrete bits... which
will, no doubt chaotically at first (until they "fall"
into whatever "level of stability" is most "natural"
for their "whatever-numbered" interactions) will,
after "the chaos of transition" lifts, will then
create across most of the cosmos a "second generation"
of "gravitational systems" (or "particles") everywhere
of a "similar nature/size/structure or number"
(perhaps, but) all or most of them interacting in some
similarly (in some related) "stable" way.
And note that it is always from this (transitional)
"chaos" that everything in the universe is built
(by/from the interactions this "chaos" sets into
motion... producing "orbits" and/or "crashes"). [There
is no "chaos" in nature, there is only our inability
to understand its laws.] "Chaos" here is only our
convenient description of a nevertheless absolutely
determinate process in which there can never be any
effect without a cause--otherwise "chaos" would remain
eternal, forever precluding our very existence.]
Now: This "quest for stability" also tends to be
characterized by a "scarcity" of free-roaming
"component particles" (of the previous generation)
as these are everywhere quickly incorporated (as
the current generation's "preferred" building
blocks (of the forms of matter "now seeking" their
own "gravitational stability." SEE Standard Model).
Arbitrarily defined as they may be, it is nevertheless
"around" a given "perfected" or "finished" level (or
levels) of matter-organization that we define "similar
forms" interacting 3-dimensionally according to
Newton's laws of motion & universal gravitation. [We
tend to describe "systems" such as atoms, stars, and
galaxies as "objects."] For example: the five or more
of these "perfected" or "finished" levels of
matter-organization straddled by our own existence
(or... that of quarks & gluons, atoms & electrons,
stars & planets, and supermassive black holes & the
galaxies from which they seem to be evolving at the
Regardless how brief or long their reign, once
these similar "systems" of interacting discrete
bits achieve their whatever measure of "stability"
as "gravitational systems" across the cosmos...
they de facto become the next "perfected" or
"finished" level of matter-organization.
At this point in this narrative we are at the "second
generation" level of matter-organization ---where it's
now the turn of this generation of "perfected" or
"finished" gravitational "systems" to build their own
local interactions... as either a few or a great many
of these second generation "systems" begin to combine
(no doubt chaotically at first, until they too find
their whatever "level of stability is most natural for
their interactions" and) combine into super-systems...
which, once they too manage to achieve cosmos-wide
stability, also de facto become the (third generation)
"perfected" or "finished" level of
And so on, forever, and so on until the ceaseless
evolution of generation after generation self-
organization of the forms of matter into stable levels
reaches our own "finished" (stable) level(s) of
matter-organization (those of our atoms, stars, and
galaxies). Which is not to say that there might not be
just as stable "finished" levels of matter-
organization "higher" than ours, of course--And quite
entirely unsuspected by us as well.
For now, if only to understand the earliest condition
of our universe of matter, the important thing here is
a realization that fission/fusion "nuclear processes"
only take place at our topmost "finished" level(s) of
matter-organization (that of the Standard Model
"nuclear" particles). At more fundamental levels of
matter-organization (than that of our "particles") the
"decay of energy" does not produce what we would
recognize as "our" heat, light, or any of "our" other
familiar processes of atomic (radio)activity.
Note: Because it does not explain the inevitability
of its "strings" ... string theory only really has
one function: to supplant the Standard Model. And
since that is an unnecessary function by definition
string theory itself is unnecessary. (Gravity is
not a force, therefore there is no need for it to
be "unified" with the 3 forces.)
To continue: if this "hypothesis of eternity" seems to
suggest that the overall density of "the void" is
constantly being "thinned out" by its incorporation of
lower-density regions (like empty "hollows" in some
viscous goo) such as the "hollow" of lesser density
which produces our own universe of matter at its core
(meaning that the bigger "the void" gets, the lower
its overall absolute density value falls)... this is
because that is exactly what must be occurring.
Remember larger/slower "forms of matter" eternally
conserving themselves into smaller/faster ones...
Well, in this sense: motion in one direction by one
part of a body is balanced by another of its parts
moving in the opposite direction. [Newton's Third
Law.] Essentially this is the process of the
greater density "the void" erasing our lesser
While matter itself is concentrating into "rock hard"
imploding discrete bits (ever tighter, harder, hotter,
and charged up)... "the void" is itself dissipating
into a general inertia as it "grows" (ever larger, and
more tenuous, stiller, colder). The two "different"
parts of the same "one body" (system) are pushing out
from/to exactly opposite directions at once--and we
can think of these two opposite "motions" as really in
the same direction (having the same
At the end of the process, matter is but motion. So
all the "matter" of the visible universe must
eventually "slow down" (unwind again) and dissolve.
Moreover, just as our hollow of lesser density is very
probably "nothing special" in nature, even our own
local "the void" is proportionally almost certainly
itself also but some likewise pinprick-size "object"
no doubt embedded in the fabric of an even "higher"
level "the void." Although likely this must remain as
hard for us to distinguish, local from general, as
it's hard for us now to distinguish "a" part of
eternity from the whole of it.
And yet, however this line of inquiry may remain
closed to us: the implication remains that vast
regions of "our" local "the void" may are very
probably everywhere pockmarked with similar "hollows
of lesser density" (each probably destined to give
rise at its core to a universe not unlike ours... as
they are one by one "collapsed" by the higher density
of "the void" encircling them).
A thought which, by the way, ought to bestow some
measure of respect upon even our humblest virtual
particle. And certainly illustrates the very
persistent "absolute relativity" of existence at any
level... as higher level "the void(s)" balance out
ever-thinner-and-thinner absolute densities with
ever-greater-and-greater absolute expanses--canceling
out everywhere all possible breaches of the law
against energy creation/destruction.
"Nature abhors a vacuum."
The crucial thing is that the absolute energy value
(density) of "the void" always remains an eternally
irrelevant (purely absolutely relativistic) number:
The strictly human question of where/how this
"primordial material" arose "to begin with" is
therefore made moot by its always relativistic nature.
Or: "If in order to exist Existence would have had to
have had a beginning--it could not exist. We exist,
therefore it behooves us to assume that there never
could have been a state of non-existence" (however one
may wish to define such terms as being & non-being).
What is important for us (strictly a concern for the
sentient beings of this one particular universe, that
is) is that the primordial medium ("energy") of "the
void" has come across the next relatively less dense
"hollow" and has given rise here (at the core of this
one particular lesser density "hollow") to the "next"
universe of visible matter... ours, namely.
I know of no requirement that "a" given universe "has
to be" of any specific (purely arbitrary) size: Here,
in this one "cosmic hollow" at whose core our visible
universe resides, it is only necessary that its volume
be "large enough" to produce the observed effects (the
requirements of other universes can be entirely
different, larger or smaller). So we might as well
forget about trying to impose any purely arbitrary
limits upon the "size" of our universe on that
account. And since now we know that there are no
"gravitational limitations," about the only thing we
may say for sure is that our visible universe is many
orders of magnitude larger than what we can "see" of
it (or, that the "size ratio" of our "hollow" to that
of its "universe of matter" was already hinted at by
Einstein's infamous [E=MC^2] approximation).
In any case: Into a "large-enough" lower density
volume (our "relatively empty" cosmic hollow)
"falls" (in quite a "shockwave") a thermodynamic
"current" not all that different in essence from
that of a lightning bolt: More slowly at first and
then faster and faster (an acceleration destined
never to end) as it "falls" in a 3-dimensional
direction towards the center of our cosmic hollow
like some unimaginably rarefied molasses.
It is when we can speak of "matter" as "energy" (or
"motion") that we can finally define existence as "not
either/or" (matter/energy); since obviously anything
"flowing" can only be described in terms of "a" higher
or "a" lower flow, and never as "not flowing."
Even at this our level of matter-organization (so many
& many orders of magnitude removed from that of
"energy"), this in a very real sense "reduction" of
matter to "motion" (i.e. the acceptance of matter as
energy) is what makes it possible to think of "matter"
in almost exactly the same way that we've popularly
come to think of "electric energy" as a "current" or
"flow." Thus it is just as possible to speak of matter
as only a "thermodynamic" current/flow... whose
seemingly permanent "structures" (shaped by the
interactions of the EM/weak and strong "nuclear
forces") are, every last one them, from top to bottom,
really only temporary "eddies" within what is
essentially also only a thermodynamic "current" or
"flow" and, consequently, never can be fundamental,
indivisible (unqueezeable) objects and/or
We mortals, understandably ever in love with just
about any ideal of permanence, will undoubtedly be
emotionally anguished to have to acknowledge that
every last bit of matter (yes, to the very last one)
in our universe is destined to "fade away" without the
least hope of there surviving even the most forlorn
memory of "our having been." But that's the way it is
(and, frankly, I think it rather poetic... this "so
very human" tragedy): The process I am explaining in
this text does describe the eventual "dissipation" of
all the universe's "matter" (if matter is but "motion"
it must eventually "come to a stop").
If this continuing process (this eternal evolution)
of matter-organization can be described as "winding
up" (larger/slower forms forever "imploding" into
smaller/faster ones)... what else can its ultimate
consequence be--if not its winding down at last
(T.S. Eliot's "whimper").
And what would the end of a universe in which its
forms of matter had completely "wound up" to the full
extent of their "energy potential" (to do so) be like?
Well, we might consider the one factor which is
evidently "increasing" even as the other two are
"decreasing" in the process described above: The
"matter-making machine" (larger/slower forms of
matter evolving or "winding up" into smaller/faster
ones) "is" of course THE mechanism by which the
finite amount of energy (of the original shockwave)
which has "fallen" into our cosmic hollow conserves
its density (or "energy value") literally into the
forms of matter (and their whatever discrete bits).
So, conversely, this same process by which "the
universe of matter" travels toward the center of the
cosmic hollow (its "singular body" imploding like a
shrinking baseball in front of our eyes) can also be
described as one in which at every step of that
journey "a" volume of space is also growing (out of
it) from a smaller/denser energy/pressure into a
larger/sparser one (or, volume of space) as if the
imploding universe of matter were a pressure wave
after the passage of which the lower density of "our"
hollow of lesser density will be left with a pressure
--an energy value-- equal to the rest of "the void"
surrounding it... thereby also making our cosmic
hollow indistinguishable from/in it:
It will be as if our lower density "hollow" had
never existed at all: So in a very real sense there
is a (thermodynamic) "purpose" to (in) the reason
for all that "space" which is continuously being
"created" inside matter itself: to finally defeat
the instability created by there being such a
"lower density" hollow "out there" to being with:
It remains axiomatic that all motion takes (uses up)
energy. So it is inevitable that "the forms of matter"
should literally consume themselves right up (even
unto nothingness): It obviously takes energy for the
forms of matter to "wind up" into "being" in the first
place--and energy/motion is what matter is "made of."
Although it may appear that (in its journey towards
the center of the cosmic hollow) the higher density
"shockwave" that has fallen into our hollow of lesser
density (to become the universe of visible matter)...
though it may appear that the higher density
"shockwave" is racing against distances, the fact is
that in reality its "forms of matter" are really
racing against time (racing toward their own
dissolution) as they "implode" (or "wind themselves
up")... literally "shrinking" themselves "right out of
existence" with all the irony of the runner in the
so-called paradox who, although running a finite
length, nevertheless can never finish his run because
he keeps switching to running half as fast every time
he gets half way to the finish line: Our universe is
also "speeding up" even as it "shrinks" (so that, like
the runner above, it too finds himself eternally just
as far away from its "finish line" as it ever is).
Even though very few of us until now have ever even
suspected that "we" were either "shrinking" or
But this is why only when observed from outside
itself (outside the universe itself) does the
universe implode in a "brief" and "finite" length
of time right down to "nothingness" (as "timed" by
clocks which being outside the universe never vary
during the implosion from its "slower" beginning to
its "faster" ending).
Observed from inside the universe itself (that is:
"timed" by clocks which "in here" are forever
adjusting as "time" itself is changing, i.e.
"speeding up")... the implosion of the universe
(like the "run" of the "eternally running" runner)
is about as close as something can come to seeming
to be eternal without actually being so.
As our clocks here inside the universe "speed up" it
makes the universe appear to us to be "lasting longer"
("longer lasting"). So that, almost nearly as
perversely as is the case with the "eternal runner" of
the story above, although the universe may also always
be running faster & faster, it is also always growing
smaller and smaller... in a quite fiendishly
proportional agreement that forever cancels out what
would otherwise be an all too obvious ever increasing
requirement for more & more energy, for example, just
to feed its same unchanging appearance (speed). Absent
which "missing energy," the universe would very
unambiguously be seen to be "slowing down"
("imploding" more and more slowly with time --or,
since for years we've misinterpreted the universe as
"expanding," we would have interpreted that
misinterpreted "expansion" as slowing down with time).
Instead the universe (its misinterpreted expansion
only as of very recently now correctly interpreted as
"speeding up") will forever be perceived to always be
"speeding up" (from our more recently well-informed
perspective, as over astronomical distances, the
farther away we look the farther back in time we're
seeing)... The universe, in reality imploding faster
and faster with time (as measured also by the Hubble
Constant), will "forever" continue to do so... until
the moment of dissolution when matter runs out of
matter, and "its forms" can no longer "hold their
Note that this is not the same phenomenon of
relativistic time-dilation described by Einstein in
the "twins paradox" where (clocks inside the
universe not being synchronized) the faster any
given bit of matter (the twin riding his rocket)
"moves" the slower his clock (its inner motions)
"runs" and therefore the faster the clocks of the
"slower moving" universe (of the twin left behind)
will run. This being caused by the disruption which
velocity imparts to matter's "inner motions."
Until matter's moment of dissolution, as with the
"eternal" runner (above) who will seem to keep running
almost forever: the universe also will be able to
continue its own "run" seemingly long, long after the
"discernible" limits of its "fuel tank" (almost as if
by magic)... as our unsuspectingly accelerating clocks
continue to unsuspectingly lengthen the "same" stretch
of time they measure.
That is to say: from our perspective, here within it,
the universe's continuing "implosion" will "seem" to
defy definition itself, appearing "never" to reach
that theoretical "smallest-possible size" beyond which
anything must "vanish" completely out of
existence--because, trapped here inside it as we are,
we can not so easily detect either the quickening of
"absolute time" (kept only by clocks outside the
universe itself), or our own dwindling "size"
alongside the ceaseless lessening of everything about
us... the eternal speeding up of the clocks here
within it making it appear to us as if it is the time
that the universe has left that is lengthening, as we
"time" the brief instant left to the universe with our
unimaginably accelerated and eternally accelerating
And so "forever" is really only relative to the
clock against which it is being timed, and not an
absolute term: Our "forever" is someone else's
brief instant in time, just as our own "brief
instant in time" can be someone else's "forever."
[And so no one need put himself in place of someone
outside the universe and, from that position, think
that all we amount to in here is but a brief few
seconds. Rather, it's far closer to our reality to
think that "clocks" outside our universe run so
slowly that they but measure a few brief seconds
during our billions of years.]
Our sole real triumph perhaps being that power of the
intellect to hurdle even the dissolution of all being
itself: here, taking in the entirely of the universe's
lifespan (and knowing how it is only when we set it
against the brief span of our own mortality that the
universe seems "almost eternal")... we can marvel at
last how even the span of the universe is something
not all that different from the so abrupt lifespan of
even the least "virtual particle" in it.
If nothing else: still one more vindication of the
proposition that existence does consistently work
by "one single simple principle" evolving all the
subsequent complexity... after which all such
boundlessly evolved complexities eventually must
decay back to the same "one single simple
principle" from which all came. That is to say:
This is yet one more hint that the laws of physics
work everywhere exactly as they do anywhere.
What is obvious is that to understand the structure of
their cosmos human beings have to divorce themselves
from their however cherished (so exclusively human)
prejudices. And that science really begins with the
quest to identify all such prejudices... because the
human perspective obviously is NOT the most universal
but one produced strictly by the requirements of/for
our existence (required solely for us to survive here
where we happen to live... within the bosom of the
"artificial nature" which is the human condition we've
conspired with the universe to construct for
ourselves). Something which is true for all scientific
considerations (human endeavors), as we continue to
"make" our entire planet into a larger and that much
more fatal a version of what we made of Easter Island.
What all this means is that, for example, the
"speed of light" is NOT "fast" (an absolute term,
from our perspective)... and is only/merely
"faster" (or "slower") in absolutely relativistic
terms: In relation to the size of a man, the speed
of light may indeed be quite "fast." But in
relation to the size of the universe, that same
speed is so monstrously slow as to almost escape
the very description of motion!
While considered from here inside it our "virtual
particle" universe may give all the appearance of
being something almost approaching the eternal (and
thereby making it so difficult for some of us to
"understand" how an "object" can shrink "forever"
unless they first understand that it is their "sense
of time" that is quickening with the ever quickening
universe about them--giving them the mistaken
"feeling" that the measured span of time that is in
reality forever growing shorter & shorter nevertheless
always remains exactly as "long" as it has ever been),
considered from without: the lifespan of our visible
universe may "pop" in/out of existence before even
perception itself may be able to take note of it (were
there "someone" outside the visible universe to "see"
it, of course--and capable of noticing it).
Yet it is only once we grasp such things as how truly
slow "our" speed of light is in "astronomical" terms,
that we might permit ourselves to imagine timing the
orbits even of electrons in terms of our hours, years,
and centuries. And then might we countenance the idea
of all those "material" structures about us (which
have all of our lives convinced us of their unchanging
solidity across untold ages) possible really being as
"fluid" as is the "flow" of electrons coursing within
the "bolt of lightning."
Then might we grasp how, in the same way that a brief
sweep of sixteenth notes might seem, to some level of
consciousness outside the human, to outlast even the
lengthiest passage of "their" whatever centuries...
even those motions which seem to us to be "the fastest
possible" may to some other level of consciousness
outside the human also seem to outlast the lengthiest
passage of "their" whatever centuries: The quick wave
of one of our hands may "really" seem so "slow" to
them that to their quicker consciousness all of its
"motion" ceases to be motion at all... and turns into
the same "notion" of solidness a bar of iron suggests
to us. Then might we divine "the frozen monsters" that
are all living things in our human perception
(including us, yes)... and recognize at last exactly
how truly solid even our greatest notion of fluidity
really is & fluid even our most unyielding solidness.
In this thermodynamic analogy, then, there is no real
distinction between the thermodynamic current that is
a bolt of lightning and the thermodynamic current that
is our visible universe's "matter." [Matter is energy
and energy is motion, reducing matter to pure motion.]
Keep this in mind (in light of our human notions
and prejudices about the nature of time). By "our
human clocks" the bolt of lightning happens "very
quickly," while the universe seems to be almost
eternal. But this is strictly a "real" distinction
only in our own minds--stemming from our
historically mistaken idea that "fast" and "slow"
are absolute values. They are not. And in the
universe there is no such thing as "fast" or "slow"
or "big" or "small" (only "faster than..." or
"slower than..." or "bigger than..." or "smaller
Living as we are inside the universe, a given rock's
whatever odd shape may seem to us to be almost
immutable to change... even if in reality that rock's
shape (as well as the shape of every other "form" in
which matter happens to exist "at the moment" here
inside our universe) is merely describing the passing
(momentary) state in which "its flow of matter" finds
itself... the ongoing, never-ceasing change through
which it is passing, one shape/form to the next one
--something indeed very much analogous to a current's
eddies as the sum total of the universe of matter
"flows" (not in a 3-dimensional, but) in the direction
This is the reason all 3-dimensional acceleration
results in an increase in mass... as matter is
"forced" to move "against" its own singularly natural
direction of motion: the direction of motion in which
it is already moving (or, "implosion").
Note that it's possible for an object to accelerate
while moving at a constant speed... since "speed"
refers only to the magnitude of the velocity, and
not to the direction in which it's moving. So that
an object can also accelerate solely by changing
its direction (even as it maintains a constant
So: Matter's "singularly natural direction of motion"
is "the direction of motion in which all matter in the
universe is already moving." And in which it has been
moving ever since the instant at which "our cosmic
hollow of lesser density" became fully saturated with
the higher density material that had fallen into it
from "the void" ... at which instant the "energy" of
that "shockwave" began to "conserve" itself (its
"energy") into/by its implosion ("larger but slower
forms forever evolving into smaller but faster ones").
"Mass" being a description of the "unwillingness"
of any discrete bit of matter to be "unnaturally"
moved in any 3-dimensional direction (against a
direction of motion in which it already finds
itself moving even absent all 3-dimensional motion
... since all the matter in the universe is already
and always will be "moving in the direction of
implosion"). Which is the explanation for inertia.
Also: all subsequently even greater (proportional to
its 3-dimensional velocity... since it's now
compounded: 3-dimensional + implosive motion)
"unwillingness" of any object/body moving
3-dimensionally to be moved "against" its "additional
to implosion" direction of motion being the
explanation for all additional force (proportional to
how fast the object/body is moving 3-dimensionally, of
course) required to "move" an object which is
"already" moving 3-dimensionally.
And note that Newton's laws of motion do not explain
the cause of inertia (now explained here) and only use
inertia as a point of departure--That is: Newton
confines his famous laws of motion to 3-dimensional
motion alone... since he could not have known that
everything in the universe is "already" (eternally)
moving in the direction of implosion (leaving inertia
an unexplained mystery).
The One Particle That Reveals It All.
At our topmost level of matter-organization (that of
atoms, stars, and galaxies) the photon is a rather
peculiar discrete bit ("unit of mass") whose most
salient characteristic is precisely that its "mass" is
so minuscule that it has even inspired a heated debate
over whether it actually has any mass at all. It has:
"Mass" as a measure of "the inertia of a given unit
of matter" means that there is no practical
distinction between a unit of matter and "an
equivalent" unit of mass--since the force needed to
accelerate an equivalent unit of either is one and
the same [historically "matter" really only being a
dim reflection of how "the structure of its mass"
is "packaged" in a greater/lesser volume].
Therein the above explanation for inertia (since by
definition: all motion NOT in "the direction of
implosion" is 3-dimensional): All 3-dimensional
motion is therefore "against" the direction in
which all matter is already moving--explaining the
"reluctance" of any unit of matter to be moved
3-dimensionally in direct proportion to its "mass."
No matter what the "mass" of the photon is finally
determined to be... its "acceleration" is prodigious.
Therefore its "mass," or "inertia," is correspondingly
prodigiously tiny--although never non-existent, or (to
put it in the conventional lingo)... or photons would
be absolutely immune to "supermassive gravitational
fields" (to which they are obviously not immune).
The structure (or "package") of the photon is very
obviously substantially oversized and, compared to the
other particles, relatively "unstable." That is: it is
"visible" out of all proportion to its mass, and its
"material" is closer to the edge of annihilation than
even that of the far more massive/stable electron's,
for example--though neither electrons nor photons have
the legacy of a long enough evolution--long enough to
have brought to them, as it has to other particles of
matter, enough mass in a "stable enough" structure
(neutrinos too are unstable, changing their "flavor").
The crucial thing at this point is that because of its
infinitesimal mass the photon is able to free itself
almost entirely from one of the two Basic Motions of
Matter's "two basic motions" as the universe moves
in the direction of implosion... one being an
"absolute" motion (which we interpret as gravity),
the other a strictly "relativistic" motion (which
we interpret as the Hubble Constant).
Photons (and other likewise extremely low-mass
particles) do "move" exactly like every other form of
matter that exists here at our topmost level of
matter-organization in one way: The also "shrink"
(thereby seeming to remain the "same size as ever"
relative to the size of all the other objects in the
universe which are also "shrinking" at the same rate).
However, as the entirety of the universe "implodes"
towards the absolute center of its cosmic hollow of
lesser density: the photon seems to be able to escape
the "absolute motion" of all the matter in the
universe (which we interpret as "gravity")... even if
it is true that it does not escape all of that motion
and only just most of it. Self-evidently: the photon
does not fully obey the absolute law of gravity most
of the other forms of matter obey.
Because all matter is everywhere moving in the
direction of implosion but there are no fundamental
objects/bodies anywhere in the universe to
"implode" toward their own "singular" geometric
centers as if they were perfect singularities...
all the objects/bodies in the universe (with the
possible exception of the discrete bits of the
theoretical "first generation" of discrete bits
ever to evolve from the primordial cloud that
"saturated" our hollow of lesser density)... all
the objects/bodies (all the forms of matter) in the
universe are imploding NOT towards their own
geometrical centers but at/toward every and all the
smallest-possible coordinate(s) in/of its matter.
Again: the overall effect of "gravity" is that (at
every smallest-possible coordinate of the matter of
every object/body in the universe)... all matter is
forever (imploding) moving in the direction of the
center of every smallest-possible coordinate of/in
The result is that what we see at our topmost level
of matter-organization is a relativistically
"frozen" solid geometry with no easily discernible
directionality in which the imploding Planet Earth,
for example, does not "implode" ONLY towards its
own "singular geometric center" but toward the
"geometric center" of every and all possible
coordinate(s) of its matter... forever giving us a
picture of the eternally always same-sized and
same-shaped unchanging sphere we've always known.
But make no mistake about this: the entire universe of
matter is absolutely imploding at the level of its
every smallest-possible coordinate(s). And, for
example, this means that the Earth is "falling" into
the Sun and that the Moon is "falling" into the Earth
in an absolute sense (exactly as described by
Galileo). Even though, relativistically, the Earth is
also moving away from the Sun, and the Moon is moving
away from the Earth (as described by the Hubble
S D Rodrian [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ]
Please don't ask me to edit this text into a more cohesive or
chronological/logical presentation! Thanks God I still have
the mental energy to type it out at all.
Nature 425 374 (2003) [Only registered users see links. ]
Relativity in the GPS system
and strong field,
Science 303(5661) 1143;1153 (2004) [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ]
Deeply relativistic neutron star binaries
If your opinions veer otherwise you are an empirical ass.
<http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr-2001-4/index.html> [Only registered users see links. ]
Experimental constraints on General Relativity
Uncle Al [Only registered users see links. ]
(Toxic URL! Unsafe for children and most mammals) [Only registered users see links. ]
"Bill Hobba" <[Only registered users see links. ].au> wrote in message news:<XbzQd.162847$[Only registered users see links. ].au>...
Okay... one vote for crazy.
I rather suspect Hilbert's boys were probably up to
no good, just like all such boys should (be).
Especially that part that's all about equations, yes.
Ok. You can stop saying that now.
.... but not the math of bicycle building: That takes
at least a third year level.
Well, as long as you understand where the PHYSICS part
comes from (physical, as in "the stuff you can touch/feel")
all's right with the world then!
S D Rodrian [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ] [Only registered users see links. ]
When the measurements become more important than what
they measure... that disconnect right there, that's pretty
much modern physics. And then... what can one not build
on such numbers!
Why, you could even build time travel and worm holes
from past to present, or even future to past... without
having to take into consideration the little matter of
the past and the future having no separate existence.
And nifty tricks like that...