The Law of Moving Dimenstions? Is The Time Dimension Moving Relative To Spatial Dimensions?
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The Theory of Moving Dimensions
Dr. Elliot McGucken [Only registered users see links. ]
In this paper I propose that the time dimension is moving relative to
the three spatial dimensions. Such a concept may be used to explain
physical phenomena encountered in relativity and quantum mechanics,
while offering a path for the unification of Quantum Mechanics and
Simply put, it is not possible to rotate an object into the time
dimension without that object gaining a velocity. Thus the time
dimension itself must be expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions. Another way of looking at this is asking, "Why does
something always move when it is rotated out of the three spatial
dimensions and into the time dimension?" If someone can conduct a
Lorentz transformation on a ruler, and rotate it into the time
dimension without it moving through the three spatial dimensions, I
would very much like to hear about it.
Einstein's two postulates of relativity state:
I. The laws of physical phenomena are the same in all inertial frames.
II. The velocity of light in free space is a universal constant,
independendent of any relative motion of teh source and teh observer.
I propose that the two postulates may be expressed in an alternative
manner, by stating the following law of moving dimensions:
I. The time dimension is moving relative to the three spatial
This can be shown illustrated in several ways: Consider an expression
for the space-time interval of zero length, or of the null vector,
which traces a photon's path through space-time:
Which for one spatial dimension becomes
by taking the derivative of both sides with respect to t, we get
dx/dt = d/dt (ct) = c
dx/dt = c
And hence the time rate of change of the spatial dimension relative to
the time rate of change of the time dimension is equal to the velocity
Also, if we trace the path of a photon on a space-time diagram, the
only way for a photon to remain stationary in space time is to move at
the speed of light, or to keep up with the expanding time dimension.
The null vector, which represents a vector of zero length in
space-time, can only imply zero movement through space-time. Even
though a photon moves through space at a velocity equal to C, it stays
stationary in space-time. Is it not strange at first that in order to
remain stationary in space time, a photon appears move at the speed of
light through space? This is only because the time dimension itself is
moving relative to space.
Einstein proclaimed that all objects travel through space-time at c.
Even though we perceive a ruler along the x axis to be stationary, it
is yet traveling through space-time at the fixed speed of c, implying
that time is moving through it. Rotate it towards the y axis, and its
projection upon the x axis shortens, yet it still appears to be
stationary, and it is still traveling through space-time at the rate
of c. Rotate it into the time dimension, and it's projection along
the x axis still shortens, but now it begins to move through the three
spatial dimensions, while maintaining the fixed speed of c through
space-time. Again, we see it move through the three spatial
dimensions as it is rotated into the time dimension because the time
dimension is moving relative to the three spatial dimensions.
As Brian Greene points out in the Appendix to Chapter 2 of The Elegant
Universe, we note that from the space-time position 4-vector
x=(ct,x1,x2,x3), we can create the velocity 4-vector u=dx/d(tau),
where tau is the proper time defined by
d(tau)^2=dt^2-c^-2(dx1^2+dx2^2+dx3^2). Then the "speed through
space-time" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
((c^2dt^2-dx^2)/(dt^2-c^-2dx^2))^(1/2), which is identically the speed
of light c. Now, we can rearrange the equation
c^2(dt/d(tau))^2-(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2 to be c^2(d(tau)/dt))^2
+(dx/d(tau))^2=c^2. This shows that an increase of an object's speed
through space, (dx/d(tau))^2)^(1/2)= dx/d(tau) must be accompanied by
a decrease in d(tau)/dt which is the object's speed through time,
which also may be considered the rate at which time elapses on it's
own clock d(tau) or the proper time, as compared with that on our
stationary clock dt.
As an object moves through space, it is rotated into the time
dimension, and less wave fronts of time are allowed to pass through it
relative to a stationary object, which bears the full brunt of wave
fronts. Thus a moving clock will run slower, as all clocks are based
on the probabilistic emission and propagation of photons, and as a
moving clock catches up with the expanding wavefront of time, the
chance that a photon will be emitted without being reabsorbed is
Thus it is shown that the spatial and temporal dimensions are moving
relative to one-another. The laws and equations of relativity and
quantum mechanics rest upon this fundamental nature of physical
Relativistic and quantum mechanical phenomena can be accounted for by
the underlying nature of the relatively moving dimensions. Time
dialation, relativistic length contraction, and the equivalence of
mass and energy can all be seen to derive from this concept of moving
dimensions. The statistical wave nature of matter and energy also
rests upon the relative motion of the underlying dimensions.
As one rotates into the time dimension, one becomes more orthogonal to
the spatial dimensions, and thus one's length contracts. And too, as
the time dimension is moving relative to the spatial dimensions, one
begins to move.
Wave-particle duality and quantum mechanical probabilistic behavior
can be accounted for by the relative motion between the dimensions, in
which both particles and waves exist. Feynman's many-paths integrals,
reflecting the notion that a particle travels all paths, can be
accounted for by the fact that until it interacts with other matter in
the three spatial dimensions, there is a probability that a particle
or photon may exist as a pure wave, rotated into the fourth dimension,
moving along with expanding time, independent of the spatial
dimensions. So it is that radiowaves may pass through walls, carrying
energy and thus mass.
The second law of thermodynamics (increasing entropy) can be accounted
for with the fact that all particles and matter have a chance of
existing in a dimension expanding at a constant rate, equally in all
dimensions, relative to the rest. The spherical symmetry of a photon's
wavefront may be viewed as the result of matter having been rotated
into the time dimension--the matter has become orthogonal to the
spatial dimensions, and it is now expanding along with time, equally
in all directions.
Einstein's second postulate, stating that the velocity of light is a
universal constant, holds to be true because the velocity of light is
merely the rate of propagation of a dimension relative to the other
dimensions. Although this relative rate of propagations between
dimensions may vary, we shall always interpret it as a constant,
because we are used to measuring the velocity of the propagation of
energy relative to the velocity of the propagation of energy, which we
write as c.
Relativistic time dialation occurs because as an object approaches the
speed of light, the object approaches the speed of the propagation of
energy. As time is measured with regards to the propagation of energy,
such as the emission of a photon (in an electrical circuit or a
mechanical spring) or or the occurence of a random event which
liberates energy, less time will pass for an entity which is
propagating at a rate which is close to the propagation of energy
itself. As an entity gains velocity, it is roated into the moving time
dimension, and it in a sense it catches up with the dimension.
Relativistic length contraction is always accompanied by an increase
in velocity, as the probability that each quantum of the object
resides in the time dimension is increased. Relativistic length
contraction can be accounted for by the fact that as an object gains
velocity its probabilistic wave function, or its essence, is rotated
into the time dimension, and thus it appears shorter from the
persepective of the three spatial dimensions. At the speed of light
the object would have to be a photon, so as to be completely absent
from the spatial dimension, as any presence or probability that a
particle is in the spatial dimnsion means that there is a probability
that the time dimension will expand without carrying it along, in
essence leaving it behind for that moment it exists in the spatial
Any material entity gains more energy as its velocity increases, and
relativity demonstrates that the entity also gains more mass. When
energy is added to an entity, it may also appears as mass, as that
energy has a finite chance of interacting with the spatial dimensions.
All matter has a spatial component, or a probability of interacting
with space, whereas a photon only interacts with that which is in the
In order to cause an entity to move, quanta of energy must be added to
it, and the entity will thus gain a new probabilities for existing in
the space and time dimensions, as its overall wavefunction, including
its mass and energy, is rotated out of the spatial dimension and into
the time dimension. This rotation into the time dimension will be
proportional to the amount of energy that has been added.
As only photons can exist purely in the spatial dimension, no entities
but for photons can ever reach the speed of light, as all matter has a
finite chance of existing purely in the spatial dimension. This
property gives rise to the concept of mass, as to exist in the spatial
dimension curves the fabric of space-time about the existence.
An entity moves through space-time according to its probability of
existing in space and time. The more energy a given entity has, the
more likely it is to exist in the time dimension, or be moving along
in the dimension which is expanding relative to the spatial
dimensions. Hence its greater velocity, and also its augmented chance
of interacting with matter over a fixed distance. This increased
chance of interacting with matter over a given distance can be
associated with a shorter deBroglie wavelength or a higher frequency.
A more energetic photon has a higher frequency, as it is composed of
more substance, and more momenergy must pass a given point at any
given time. A less energetic photon carries less momenergy, and thus
there is a smaller chance of it interacting with matter as it passes
on by. A more energetic photon has a higher probability of interacting
with matter as it passes it by, as its shorter wavelngth and higher
frequency represent a greater, more persistant existence in
A photon has no spatial dimensions, as it is matter rotated into the
time dimension. Einstein's famous equation which expresses the
equivalnce between matter and energy:
holds true because radiative energy, consisting of photons, is merely
matter which has been rotaed tinto the expanding time dimension.
In quantum mechanics energy is accounted for by the operator which
represents the infinitesimal change with respect to time, while
momentum is accounted for by an operator which represents the
infinitesimal change with respect to space. Both momentum and energy
are defined with the concept of change and probability. And too,
inherent in all waves are the concepts of motion and probability.
Einstein's postulates derive from the fact that in all inertial
reference frames, the relative motions between the dimensions is fixed
at a constant rate, because the relative motion between the dimensions
is measured relative to the relative motion. Thus the laws of physics,
and all physical concepts, which are all fundamentally based on the
concept of motion or change with respect to time, are also fixed in
all interial frames, and the speed of light is constant in all
As physics concerns itself at all levels with changes relative to both
space and time, it makes sense that all physics, time, motion,
reality, life, and consciousness itself are founded upon a stage which
is endowed with intrinsic motion.
The underlying fabric of all reality, the dimensions themselves, are
moving relative to one another.
I'm treating this as an open-source physics project, if anyone would
like to join me at
The Law of Moving Dimenstions? Is The Time Dimension Moving RelativeTo Spatial Dimensions?
Ranger West wrote:
Dimensions don't move, but mass and energy can move along dimensions.
pgs 391-392, "The Elegant Universe", Brian Greene (1999)
"5. For the mathematically inclined reader, we note that from the
spacetime position 4-vector x = (ct, x_sub1, x_sub2, x_sub3) = ct, x_bar
we can produce the velocity 4-vector u = dx/dtau, where tau is the proper
time defined by dtau^2 = dt^2 - c^-2 (dx_sub1^2 + dx_sub2^2 +dx_sub3^2).
Then, the "speed through spacetime" is the magnitude of the 4-vector u,
[((c^2 dt^2 - dx_bar^2)/(dt^2 - c^-2 dx_bar^2))]^0.5, which is identically
the speed of light, c. Now, we can rearrange the equation c^2 (dt/dtau)^2
- (dx_bar/dtau)^2 = c^2, to be c^2 (dtau/dt)^2 + (dx_bar/dt)^2 = c^2. This
shows than an increase in an object's speed through space, [(dx_bar/dt)^2]^0.5
must be accompanied by a decrease in dtau/dt, the latter being the object's
speed through time (the rate at which time elapses on its own clock, dtau,
as compared with that on our stationary clock, dt)".