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Standard Model Upgrading & EnhancementIn the Scientific American June 2003 article "Dawn of Physics Beyond the Standard Model". It stated "Other reasons for extending the Standard Model arise from phenomena it cannot explain or cannot even accommodate: 1. All our theories today seem to imply that the universe should contain a tremendous concentration of energy, even in the emptiest regions of space. The gravitational effects of this so-called vacuum energy would have either quickly curled up the universe long ago or expanded it to much greater size. The Standard Model cannot help us understand this puzzle, called the cosmological constant problem. 2. The expansion of the universe was long believed to be slowing down because of the mutual gravitational attraction of all the matter in the universe. We now know that the expansion is accelerating and that whatever causes the acceleration (dubbed "dark energy") cannot be Standard Model physics. 3. There is very good evidence that in the first fraction of a second of the big bang the universe went through a stage of extremely rapid expansion called inflation. The fields responsible for inflation cannot be Standard Model ones. 4. If the universe began in the big bang as a huge burst of energy, it should have evolved into equal parts matter and antimatter (CP symmetry). But instead the stars and nebulae are made of protons, neutrons and electrons and not their an. tiparticles (their antimatter equivalents). This matter asymmetry cannot be explained by the Standard Model. 5. About a quarter of the universe is invisible cold dark matter that cannot be particles of the Standard Model. 6. In the Standard Model, interactions with the Higgs field (which is associated with the Higgs boson) cause particles to have mass. The Standard Model cannot explain the very special forms that the Higgs interactions must take. 7. Quantum corrections apparently make the calculated Higgs boson mass huge, which in turn would make all particle masses huge. That result cannot be avoided in the Standard Model and thus causes a serious conceptual problem. 8. The Standard Model cannot include gravity, because it does not have the same structure as the other three forces. 9. The values of the masses of the quarks and leptons (such as the electron and neutrinos) cannot be explained by the Standard Model. 10. The Standard Model has three "generations" of particles. The everyday world is made up entirely of first-generation particles, and that generation appears to form a consistent theory on its own. The Standard Model describes all three generations, but it cannot explain why more than one exists." (The author continues:) "In expressing these mysteries, when I say the Standard Model cannot explain a given phenomenon, I do not mean that the theory has not yet explained it but might do so one day. The Standard Model is a highly constrained theory, and it cannot ever explain the phenomena listed above. Possible explanations do exist. One reason the supersymmetric extension (see description below - Cinquirer) is attractive to many physicists is that it can address all but the second and the last three of these mysteries. String theory (in which particles are represented by tiny, one-dimensional entities instead of point objects) addresses the last three [see "The Theory Formerly Known as Strings," by Michael J. Duff; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, February 1998. The phenomena that the Standard Model cannot explain are clues to how it will be extended. It is not surprising that there are questions that the Standard Model cannot answer - every successful theory in science has increased the number of answered questions but has left some unanswered. And even though improved understanding has led to new questions that could not be formulated earlier, the number of unanswered fundamental questions has continued to decrease. Some of these 10 mysteries demonstrate another reason why particle physics today is entering a new era. It has become clear that many of the deepest problems in cosmology have their solutions in particle physics, so the fields have merged into "particle cosmology." Only from cosmological studies could we learn that the universe is matter (and not antimatter) or that the universe is about a quarter cold dark matter. Any theoretical understanding of these phenomena must explain how they arise as part of the e volution of the universe after the big bang. But cosmology alone cannot tell us what particles make up cold dark matter, or how the matter asymmetry is actually generated, or how inflation originates. Understanding of the largest and the smallest phenomena must come together." (Below described the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model that can supersede the Standard Model. If you have any better model to offer, or know the answers to any of the above 10 top mysteries. Pls. share your thoughts - Cinquirer) "THE MOST WIDELY FAVORED THEORY to supersede the Standard Model is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In this model, every known particle species has a superpartner particle that is related to it by supersymmetry. Particles come in two broad classes: bosons (such as the force particles), which can gather en masse in a single state, and fermions (such as quarks and leptons), which avoid having identical states. The superpartner of a fermion is always a boson and vice versa. Indirect evidence for supersymmetry comes from the extrapolation of interactions to high energies, In the Standard Model, the three forces become similar but not equal in strength (top). The existence of superpartners changes the extrapolation so that the forces all coincide at one energy (bottom) - a clue that they become unified if supersymmetry is true." |

Striking Regularities In The Standard Model[Only registered and activated users can see links. Click Here To Register...] (cinquirer) writes:Actually, no, the first generation is not self-contained. The charge eigenstates of the weak force are mixtures across the generations of the mass eigenstates, and vice versa. So, the origin of the generational structure is directly linked to whatever is behind the origin of mass. Also, there is a little-known regularity that happens to arise in the Standard Model, even though it's neither explicitly stipulated nor a consequence of the Higgs mechanism. The mass matrix for the boson fields are proportional to the squares of the (left - right) action of the fields on the fermions. So, whatever is behind the origin of masses in the bosons is directly linked to the left-right assymmetry of the forces precisely in the very places to the very extent the assymmetry arises. There are other little-known regularities that also just arise in the Standard Model, even though they are not explicitly incorporated that way. The most notable is that the (3-fold degenerate) set of 32 fermion states are precisely all those formed as +1/2 and -1/2 multiples of the following set of quantum numbers: a = (Baryon - Lepton)/2 + Hypercharge - Isospin b = (Baryon - Lepton)/2 + Hypercharge + Isospin c = (Lepton - Baryon)/2 + (L3 + L8/sqrt(3)) d = (Lepton - Baryon)/2 - 2 L8/sqrt(3) e = (Lepton - Baryon)/2 + (-L3 + L8/sqrt(3)) (L3, L8 the SU(3) casimir charges) and inverse relations: Hypercharge = (a+b)/2 + (c+d+e)/3 Isospin = (b-a)/2 Electric Charge = Hypercharge + Isospin = b + (c+d+e)/3 Baryon-Lepton = -(c+d+e)/3 L3 = (c-e)/2 L8 = (c-2d+e)/sqrt(12) and that the spectrum of charged bosons are the +1/-1 combinations of pairs of these numbers: W+: b = 1, a = -1 W-: a = 1, b = -1 color-exchange Gluons (there are no official names for the gluons, the terms are mine): R: d = 1, c = -1 O: e = 1, c = -1 Y: e = 1, d = -1 G: c = 1, d = -1 B: c = 1, e = -1 P: d = 1, e = -1; the 4 hypothetical Higgs modes would be those with the charges phi_0: a = +1 anti phi_0: a = -1 phi+: b = +1 phi-: b = -1. The a number is only one linked to left-right assymmetry (a becomes -a under left-right reversal; b,c,d,e stay the same). So, whatever veracity the Higgs mechanism has, it is directly linked to left-right assymmetry of the forces. Last, but not least, is the clincher. The charge equivalents of the 5 quantum numbers are: a: Y = g'/2, I3 = -g/2, L3 = L8 = (B-L)/2 = 0 b: Y = g'/2, I3 = g/2, L3 = L8 = (B-L)/2 = 0 c: Y = g'/3, I3 = 0, L3 = gs/2, L8 = gs/sqrt(12), (B-L)/2 = -1 d: Y = g'/3, I3 = 0, L3 = 0, L8 = -gs/sqrt(3), (B-L)/2 = -1 e: Y = g'/3, I3 = 0, L3 = -gs/2, L8 = gs/sqrt(12), (B-L)/2 = -1 Y = Hypercharge, I3 = Isospin, g',g,gs the coupling constants for U(1), SU(2) and SU(3), B-L = Baryon-Lepton. When coupling constants are rescaled to units g' = 6, g = gs = sqrt(12), (B-L)/2 scaled to 2, the result is: a: (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2) = (3, -sqrt(3), 0, 0, 0) b: (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2) = (3, sqrt(3), 0, 0, 0) c: (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2) = (2, 0, sqrt(3), 1, -2) d: (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2) = (2, 0, 0, -2, -2) e: (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2) = (2, 0, -sqrt(3), 1, -2) -- 6 vectors of length 12 at 60 degrees each from one another: i.e., the edges of a 5-simplex. Calling the vectors <a>,<b>,<c>,<d>,<e> respectively, they can be embedded in a 6-D cartesian grid by adding an extra quantum number (N), by: X = ( 2, 0, 0, 0, -1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) A = (-1, sqrt(3), 0, 0, -1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) B = (-1, -sqrt(3), 0, 0, -1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) C = ( 0, 0, -sqrt(3), -1, 1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) D = ( 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) E = ( 0, 0, sqrt(3), -1, 1, 1) = (Y,I3,L3,L8,(B-L)/2,N) with <a>=X-A,<b>=X-B,<c>=X-C,<d>=X-D,<e>=X-E. The matrix U that rotates from the unit vectors <Y>,<I3>,<L3>,<L8> <(B-L)/2>,<N> to the basis X,A,B,C,D,E has its transpose as its own inverse: U^{-1} = U^T = U^+, i.e., U is unitary. |

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