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environmental science and technology

environmental science and technology - Environmental Sciences and Issues

environmental science and technology - Forum on Environmental Sciences and Issues, including bioremediation and biodegradation.


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Old 06-04-2010, 06:36 AM
Pipette Filler
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Exclamation environmental science and technology



Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

Patrick J. Phillips*†, Steven G. Smith‡, D. W. Kolpin§, Steven D. Zaugg‡, Herbert T. Buxton, Edward T. Furlong‡, Kathleen Esposito and Beverley Stinson#
US Geological Survey, 425 Jordan Road, Troy, New York 12180, US Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS415, Lakewood, Colorado 80225, US Geological Survey, 400 S. Clinton Street, Iowa City, Iowa 52244, US Geological Survey, Suite 206, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, New Jersey 08628, AECOM, 605 Third Avenue, New York, New York 10158, and AECOM, 14504 Greenview Drive, Suite 400, Laurel, Maryland 20708

Abstract

Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally <1 μg/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone, butalbital, and metaxalone) in samples of NY3 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents.

Isotopic Composition and Origin of Indigenous Natural Perchlorate and Co-Occurring Nitrate in the Southwestern United States

W. Andrew Jackson*†, John Karl Bhlke‡, Baohua Gu§, Paul B. Hatzinger and Neil C. Sturchio
Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas,79410, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 20192, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, Shaw Environmental Inc., Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648, and University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607
Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/es903802j
Publication Date (Web): June 3, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

Abstract
Perchlorate (ClO4−) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4− appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4− indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ37Cl) and associated NO3− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3−-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4− in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4− from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4−. ClO4− in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Δ17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley δ37Cl values (−3.1 to −0.8 ‰) and δ18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4−. In contrast, ClO4− from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Δ17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high δ37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and δ18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4− was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Δ17O values in ClO4− (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Δ17O values in NO3−, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Δ17O values in less arid settings. Although Δ17O variations in terrestrial NO3− can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high Δ17O) and biogenic (low Δ17O) NO3−, variations in Δ17O of terrestrial ClO4− are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO4− in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO4− formation mechanisms and(or) ClO4− isotopic exchange in biologically active environments.

Surface Complexation of Neptunium(V) onto Whole Cells and Cell Components of Shewanella alga: Modeling and Experimental Study

Randhir P. Deo†, Warinthorn Songkasiri‡, Bruce E. Rittmann*† and Donald T. Reed§
Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5701, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Excellence Center Waste Utilization and Management, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10150 Thailand, and Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Carlsbad, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico 88220
Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/es9035336
Publication Date (Web): June 3, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

Abstract

We systematically quantified surface complexation of Np(V) onto whole cells, cell wall, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Shewanella alga strain BrY. We first performed acid and base titrations and used the mathematical model FITEQL to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of specific surface functional groups. Deprotonation constants most likely corresponded to a carboxyl group not associated with amino acids (pKa 5), a phosphoryl site (pKa 7.2), and an amine site (pKa > 10). We then carried out batch sorption experiments with Np(V) and each of the S. alga components as a function of pH. Since significant Np(V) sorption was observed on S. alga whole cells and its components in the pH range 2−5, we assumed the existence of a fourth site: a low-pKa carboxyl site (pKa 2.4) that is associated with amino acids. We used the SPECIATE submodel of the biogeochemical model CCBATCH to compute the stability constants for Np(V) complexation to each surface functional group. The stability constants were similar for each functional group on S. alga bacterial whole cells, cell walls, and EPS, and they explain the complicated sorption patterns when they are combined with the aqueous-phase speciation of Np(V). For pH < 8, the aquo NpO2+ species was the dominant form of Np(V), and its log K values for the low-pKa carboxyl, mid-pKa carboxyl, and phosphoryl groups were 1.8, 1.8, and 2.5−3.1, respectively. For pH greater than 8, the key surface ligand was amine >XNH3+, which complexed with NpO2(CO3)35−. The log K for NpO2(CO3)35− complexed onto the amine groups was 3.1−3.9. All of the log K values are similar to those of Np(V) complexes with aqueous carboxyl and N-containing carboxyl ligands. These results help quantify the role of surface complexation in defining actinide-microbiological interactions in the subsurface.
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Old 09-07-2010, 04:30 PM
Pipette Filler
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Default Re: environmental science and technology

What it the safe way of investing in penny stocks?
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Old 05-15-2012, 09:10 AM
Pipette Filler
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Hai...
Just now i have visited abcenviron site..It is very informative..just look on that

by
afteam
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Old 05-16-2012, 11:10 AM
Pipette Filler
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Thanks Nethra - can I ask what happens to this wastewater? Presumably further treatment removes these traces before this would reach the human food chain?
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Old 05-17-2012, 07:54 AM
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Publishes news and research in diverse areas of environmental science and engineering. The Department of Environmental Science and Technology strives to advance fundamental environmental science and to lead in the development of novel .Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology provides comprehensive and timely reviews by the leading authorities in each subject area.
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