Go Back   Science Forums Biology Forum Molecular Biology Forum Physics Chemistry Forum > General Science Forums > Chemistry Forum
Register Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read

Chemistry Forum Chemistry Forum. Discuss chemical reactions, chemistry.


a cabinet of chemical curio's the william and james motor

a cabinet of chemical curio's the william and james motor - Chemistry Forum

a cabinet of chemical curio's the william and james motor - Chemistry Forum. Discuss chemical reactions, chemistry.


Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1  
Old 02-22-2004, 10:34 AM
donald j haarmann
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default a cabinet of chemical curio's the william and james motor



[A better organized person would have noted from where he scanned it! /djh/]


CHARGE TO OPERATE A RECIPROCATING ENGINE

A solid charge for actuating a " William and James " motor, which is a
four-cylinder reciprocating engine, has been described. The gas generator
device is shown in Fig. 15. It comprised a strong-walled steel tube 4-7 in. internal
diameter and 5 in. external diameter closed at one end and lined internally with a
layer of " Hallite " steam jointing sheet material, into which was pressed a
propellent composition in incremental charges under a pressure of 5,550 lb. per
sq. in. forming a continuous column. The weight of the charge was 15 lb. It
comprised a ball-milled powder of composition:

Ammonium nitrate 78.5%
Potassium nitrate 9.0
Anhydrous ammonium oxalate 6.9
Ammonium bichromate 5.6
China clay + 0.7



In order to test out the gas- generating device in conjunction with the motor the
open end of the charge case was closed by a steel cap and coupled by a 3 in.
steel pipe to a " William and James " motor designed for starting bus engines.
The charge was about 15 in. Long and was ignited at one end by means of an
electric powder fuse comprising 5 grains of blackpowder together with a disc of
blackpowder primed cambric. The gases from the charge were filtered through a
slag wool filter in order to remove any solid particles. The combustion of the
charge ran the engine for 3 minutes 20 seconds. The operating pressure rose to
280 lb. per sq. in. and the engine developed an average brake horse power of
3.3 and a maximum brake horse power of 4.1. The temperature of the gases
leaving the device was 600o C., while the temperature at the inlet drop in
temperature being due to heat losses in the connecting tube. The engine ran
smoothly throughout the test and when examined afterwards was found to be in
good condition and free from corrosion. Fig. 16 shows a solid charge of similar
composition to the previous example, but for a much larger engine. Composition
(149 lb.) was pressed into a 7-in. diameter container lined on sides and base
with " Hallite " jointing sheet. The charge was pressed in six equal increments at
2,000 lb. per sq. in. A charge of 8 lb. of china clay was spread evenly over the
base of the container on top of the " Hallite " lining before loading the first
increment. When pressed the china clay formed a firm incombustible layer
bonded to the combustible charge thus ensuring even burning during the last
stages of combustion.

The gases again were passed. through a filter containing slag wool before being
fed to the engine which was driven for 2 minutes at an average pressure of 530
lb. per sq. in. and developed an average power of 150 B.H.P.

THE NATURE OF THE CHROMATE-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION

If an intimate mixture of ammonium nitrate and potassium chromate, in powder
form, is heated at a point in it by a flame or hot wire the ammonium nitrate begins
to decompose at that point and this decomposition spreads slowly and smoothly
throughout he mixture until all the ammonium nitrate has been consumed. There
is no flame or glow, but the decomposition of the ammonium nitrate produces
volumes of gas coloured brown by nitrogen dioxide. The potassium chromate
remains at the end of the reaction, some of it having changed into potassium
dichromate, the excess potassium being present as nitrate. Essentially, however
the potassium chromate obeys the criterion of a catalyst, of being unchanged by
the reaction. By arranging the experiment so that a column of ammonium nitrate
has resting on it an ammonium nitrate/potassium chromate mixture, and causing
this to react, the potassium chromate will gradually pass down through the
column of ammonium nitrate, causing it all to react. Thus the reaction is definitely
one of catalysis by the potassium chromate.

If ammonium dichromate is used instead of potassium chromate in admixture
with ammonium nitrate, it not only brings about decomposition of the latter, but
as it itself decomposes in a self sustained manner when locally initiated evolving
nitrogen and steam and leaving a voluminous green mass of chromic oxide,
according to the reaction:

(NH4)2Cr207 ---)- 4H20 + N2 + Cr204

the heat released is considerable and this assists the reaction of the ammonium
nitrate thermally, so that the reaction is not solely catalytic. Nevertheless, this is
not a case of thermal decomposition of the ammonium nitrate sustained by the
heat of this reaction, since on the one hand the proportion of ammonium
dichromate need not be sufficient to supply the heat requisite even to melt all the
ammonium nitrate and, on the other hand, if a mixture of potassium nitrate,
ammonium nitrate and ammonium dichromate is used, the chromium remains
after the reaction in the form of potassium chromate and dichromate, indicating
that the reaction between potassium nitrate and ammonium dichromate has
preference, as it were, over the selfsustained thermal decomposition of the
ammonium dichromate.

This catalytic aspect of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate differentiates it
rather sharply from the combustion of cordite or blackpowder, which are by
comparison high-temperature reactions, in which the energy released is
sufficient to activate the molecules over the energy thresholds without the
assistance of a catalyst.

[You could fertilize your garden with its exhaust!! /djh/]



--
donald j haarmann
-----------------------------
As if ordained by Fate, Nitre, that admirable salt,
hath made as much noise in Philosophy as in
War, all the world being filled with its thunder.

John Mayow
Ttractalus Quinque Medico-Physici, 1674




Reply With Quote
  #2  
Old 02-22-2004, 08:21 PM
Muhammar
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default a cabinet of chemical curio's ? the william and james motor

15 lb of a proppelant should be able to push the bus for a while. I do
not understand why they bothered with a reciprocating engine when a
nozzle would do just as well. Btw., did you hear the urban legend
about a guy who put a JATO rocket onto his Chevy Impala?

"donald j haarmann" <[Only registered users see links. ].net> wrote in message news:<jB%Zb.69359$[Only registered users see links. ].worldnet.att.net>...
Reply With Quote
  #3  
Old 02-23-2004, 12:31 AM
Cary Kittrell
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default a cabinet of chemical curio's ? the william and james motor

In article <[Only registered users see links. ] > [Only registered users see links. ] (Muhammar) writes:

<15 lb of a proppelant should be able to push the bus for a while. I do
<not understand why they bothered with a reciprocating engine when a
<nozzle would do just as well. Btw., did you hear the urban legend
<about a guy who put a JATO rocket onto his Chevy Impala?

That famously did not happen out here, in Arizona. As always with
this sort of thing, snopes is the place to go:

[Only registered users see links. ]


<
<"donald j haarmann" <[Only registered users see links. ].net> wrote in message news:<jB%Zb.69359$[Only registered users see links. ].worldnet.att.net>...
<> [A better organized person would have noted from where he scanned it! /djh/]
<>
<>
<> CHARGE TO OPERATE A RECIPROCATING ENGINE
<>
<> A solid charge for actuating a " William and James " motor, which is a
<> four-cylinder reciprocating engine, has been described. The gas generator
<> device is shown in Fig. 15. It comprised a strong-walled steel tube 4-7 in. internal
<> diameter and 5 in. external diameter

Is it just me, or does anyone else think that a steel tube seven inches in
internal diameter and four inches in external diameter might not be as "strong-walled"
as they desire?


<> closed at one end and lined internally with a
<> layer of " Hallite " steam jointing sheet material, into which was pressed a
<> propellent composition in incremental charges under a pressure of 5,550 lb. per
<> sq. in. forming a continuous column. The weight of the charge was 15 lb. It
<> comprised a ball-milled powder of composition:
<>
<> Ammonium nitrate 78.5%
<> Potassium nitrate 9.0
<> Anhydrous ammonium oxalate 6.9
<> Ammonium bichromate 5.6
<> China clay + 0.7
<>
<>
<>
<> In order to test out the gas- generating device in conjunction with the motor the
<> open end of the charge case was closed by a steel cap and coupled by a 3 in.
<> steel pipe to a " William and James " motor designed for starting bus engines.
<> The charge was about 15 in. Long and was ignited at one end by means of an
<> electric powder fuse comprising 5 grains of blackpowder together with a disc of
<> blackpowder primed cambric. The gases from the charge were filtered through a
<> slag wool filter in order to remove any solid particles. The combustion of the
<> charge ran the engine for 3 minutes 20 seconds. The operating pressure rose to
<> 280 lb. per sq. in. and the engine developed an average brake horse power of
<> 3.3 and a maximum brake horse power of 4.1. The temperature of the gases
<> leaving the device was 600o C., while the temperature at the inlet drop in
<> temperature being due to heat losses in the connecting tube. The engine ran
<> smoothly throughout the test and when examined afterwards was found to be in
<> good condition and free from corrosion. Fig. 16 shows a solid charge of similar
<> composition to the previous example, but for a much larger engine. Composition
<> (149 lb.) was pressed into a 7-in. diameter container lined on sides and base
<> with " Hallite " jointing sheet. The charge was pressed in six equal increments at
<> 2,000 lb. per sq. in. A charge of 8 lb. of china clay was spread evenly over the
<> base of the container on top of the " Hallite " lining before loading the first
<> increment. When pressed the china clay formed a firm incombustible layer
<> bonded to the combustible charge thus ensuring even burning during the last
<> stages of combustion.
<>
<> The gases again were passed. through a filter containing slag wool before being
<> fed to the engine which was driven for 2 minutes at an average pressure of 530
<> lb. per sq. in. and developed an average power of 150 B.H.P.
<>
<> THE NATURE OF THE CHROMATE-INDUCED DECOMPOSITION
<>
<> If an intimate mixture of ammonium nitrate and potassium chromate, in powder
<> form, is heated at a point in it by a flame or hot wire the ammonium nitrate begins
<> to decompose at that point and this decomposition spreads slowly and smoothly
<> throughout he mixture until all the ammonium nitrate has been consumed. There
<> is no flame or glow, but the decomposition of the ammonium nitrate produces
<> volumes of gas coloured brown by nitrogen dioxide. The potassium chromate
<> remains at the end of the reaction, some of it having changed into potassium
<> dichromate, the excess potassium being present as nitrate. Essentially, however
<> the potassium chromate obeys the criterion of a catalyst, of being unchanged by
<> the reaction. By arranging the experiment so that a column of ammonium nitrate
<> has resting on it an ammonium nitrate/potassium chromate mixture, and causing
<> this to react, the potassium chromate will gradually pass down through the
<> column of ammonium nitrate, causing it all to react. Thus the reaction is definitely
<> one of catalysis by the potassium chromate.
<>
<> If ammonium dichromate is used instead of potassium chromate in admixture
<> with ammonium nitrate, it not only brings about decomposition of the latter, but
<> as it itself decomposes in a self sustained manner when locally initiated evolving
<> nitrogen and steam and leaving a voluminous green mass of chromic oxide,
<> according to the reaction:
<>
<> (NH4)2Cr207 ---)- 4H20 + N2 + Cr204
<>
<> the heat released is considerable and this assists the reaction of the ammonium
<> nitrate thermally, so that the reaction is not solely catalytic. Nevertheless, this is
<> not a case of thermal decomposition of the ammonium nitrate sustained by the
<> heat of this reaction, since on the one hand the proportion of ammonium
<> dichromate need not be sufficient to supply the heat requisite even to melt all the
<> ammonium nitrate and, on the other hand, if a mixture of potassium nitrate,
<> ammonium nitrate and ammonium dichromate is used, the chromium remains
<> after the reaction in the form of potassium chromate and dichromate, indicating
<> that the reaction between potassium nitrate and ammonium dichromate has
<> preference, as it were, over the selfsustained thermal decomposition of the
<> ammonium dichromate.
<>
<> This catalytic aspect of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate differentiates it
<> rather sharply from the combustion of cordite or blackpowder, which are by
<> comparison high-temperature reactions, in which the energy released is
<> sufficient to activate the molecules over the energy thresholds without the
<> assistance of a catalyst.
<>
<> [You could fertilize your garden with its exhaust!! /djh/]
<>
<>
<>
<> --
<> donald j haarmann
<> -----------------------------
<> As if ordained by Fate, Nitre, that admirable salt,
<> hath made as much noise in Philosophy as in
<> War, all the world being filled with its thunder.
<>
<> John Mayow
<> Ttractalus Quinque Medico-Physici, 1674


Reply With Quote
  #4  
Old 02-23-2004, 08:24 PM
hanson
Guest
 
Posts: n/a
Default a cabinet of chemical curio's the william and james motor

"donald j haarmann" <[Only registered users see links. ].net> wrote
a GREAT POST, but you post:


Wait a minute here.... Cr204 ? ..... aahhhhh...
---------- LET's have some fun!! --------------

is that ....a nuclear reaction from Cr207 to Cr204, heavyiiiiihhh... or
Chrome 204 ? .... a metallic, shiny nano xx of 204 Cr atoms?
or Cr204, a silvery looking triple chromed Buckyball with 204 Cr's?
Wow.... but, I don't think so.......but then perhaps
the H20, the deca-H2, (H2)*10 was the real fuel for this WJ engine.
Maybe Will & James were the fathers of Fleishman and Ponds.

...... or is it simply that your cap "O" key is broken, the ALT+79 stroke ?

.......even then, I have doubts that it is Cr2O4.
Cr2O4, well two CrO2 maybe, but that's not green.
CrO2 / Cr2O4 is almost black.
It's the dark brown stuff they make video/audio tapes with.

------- start ref -----------
"Nils Dalen" <[Only registered users see links. ]> wrote in message
news:[Only registered users see links. ] m

in news:wzl%a.4787$[Only registered users see links. ].pas.earthli nk.net
hanson wrote: Hey, thanks a million, dude.
The patents show that the simplest reaction for producing
CrO2, Chromium Dioxide, via CrO3 + Cr2O3 = 3 CrO2
does not work in practice. All patents show that a vast excess
of CrO3 is required which shows reactions that look like:
3 CrO3 + Cr2O3 = 5 CrO2 + O2 .... to .....
6 CrO3 + Cr2O3 = 8 CrO2 + 2.5 O2.
The Cr6+, the Cr3+ plus some water are mixed into a paste.
Reducing- and nucleating agents are added and then the paste
is typically cooked at 110-750C for 1 to 15 hrs under 100 to
700 atm. The reaction mix then is slowly cooled & the insoluble
CrO2 that formed is separated and worked up to be ready for
mixing into various "glues" that are applied onto a carrier tape.
....... The theoretician, especially the relativity ones, should
therefore go and take a shit in the woods or the cow pasture
and wonder why this works too.....ahahahaha.....ahahahahanson
------- end ref -----------

So much for the Cr2O4 ---> 2 CrO2.
The fluffy green stuff is Cr2O3 produced according to
(NH4)2Cr2O7 ---> 4H2O + N2 + Cr2O3
that would sound more plausible, wouldn't it.
Don, no offense, just have some informative nitpicking session here.

Now, let's take that the W&J's recipe a bit under the "Lupe":


This receipe gives ~ the following component mole ratio:
78.5 % NH4NO3 .................. 1.00 mole
9.0 % KNO3 ....................... 0.10 mole
6.9 % (NH4)2C2O4............... 0.06 mole
5.6 % (NH4)2Cr2O7............. 0.02 mole

Now, 1 mole NH4NO3 decomposes into
NH4NO3 ----> N2 + 2 H2O + 1/2 O2 or in terms of 1/100 moles
100 NH4NO3 ---> 100 N2 + 200 H2O + 50 O2 ========> (A)

With the 3 remaining ingredients of 0.1 mole size we set up a
1/100 mol of 10 KNO3 = 0.1 mole sizebrutto reaction as:

10 KNO3 + 6 N2H8C2O4 + 2 N2H8Cr2O7 ----> ========> (B)
having a total of 50 + 96 + 38 = 184 (symbol) atoms
10 K = 10 K ::: and ::: 10 N + 12 N + 4 N = 26 N ::: and
30 O + 24 O + 14 O = 68 O ::: and ::: 48 H + 16 H = 64 H
::: and ::: 12 C = 12 C ::: and ::: 4 Cr = 4 Cr summing up in
cross check to: 10 + 26 + 68 + 64 + 12 + 4 = 184 (symbol) atoms

These educts above should give the following products to
balance the above symbol atom count of 184:
10 KNO3 + 6 N2H8C2O4 + 2 N2H8Cr2O7 -----> which burn into

5 K2O + 2 Cr2O3 + 13 N2 + 12 CO2 + 32 H2O + 0.5 O2 or
which is equivalent to
5 K2CO3 + 2 Cr2O3 + 13 N2 + 7 CO2 + 32 H2O + 0.5 O2 or
which equivalent to
5 K2CO3 + 2 Cr2O3 + 12.5 N2 + 7 CO2 + 32 H2O + NO ==> (C)

So, now we can combine the A+B+C and write the brutto reactions as
100 NH4NO3 ---> 100 N2 + 200 H2O + 50 O2 ========> (A)
10 KNO3 + 6 N2H8C2O4 + 2 N2H8Cr2O7 ----> ========> (B)
5 K2CO3 + 2 Cr2O3 + 12.5 N2 + 7 CO2 + 32 H2O + NO ==> (C)

finally, when combined as:
100 NH4NO3 + 10 KNO3 + 6 N2H8C2O4 + 2 N2H8Cr2O7 ----> burn into
112.5 N2 + 232 H2O + 50 O2 + 7 CO2 + NO + 5 K2CO3 + 2 Cr2O3 =>(C)
check is showing educts and products haveing 1084 atoms.
(calc. the liquid volume necessary for these 1084 atoms. It is pitifully
small. Then calculate the probability that these 1084 atoms react with
each other in the fashion the equations says the must. The probability
for this is also pitifully small......ahahahahahaha........ahahahahaha)
Never mind....

(C) occurs under one conditon that would be (after K2CO3/Cr2O3)
fltratation a cololress gas, which shows an excess of ~ 50/1042 vol =
~ 5% v/v free oxygen which reacts with the NO and forms ~ 1/1042
vol =~ 0.1 % v/v brown NO2. Actually, the 5% O2 may able to produce
additonal 49/993 =~ 4.9% v/v redish NO2 fumes as is oberved.

So, (C) obviously occurs under conditions where locally a < pH 7
conditions arises, allowing the reduction of Cr6+ into Cr3+. This
happens when the reaction NO2+NO+H2O <---> 2 HNO2 appears
and the dissassociation of HNO2 into NO2- and H+ occurs, and then
the H+ concetrations detlivers the required acidity level, necessary
for the Cr6+ reduction to take place.

Under conditions when, if and where the pH remains largely neutral
and the reaction (NH4)2 Cr2O7 + 2 K2CO3 ---> 2 K2CrO4 + 2 NH4HCO3
can be present, then, like W&J conjectures, the Potassium may be the
catalyst responsible for the oxidative decomposition of the NH4NO3.
K+'s catalytic activity is similarly observed in the experiment when you
put some cigarette ash (K+ source) onto a sugar cube and ignite it, and
obtain a continuous flame.

Now, whether such events do occur from conclusions that are drawn from
observations in/at the experiment or from conjectures that arise from
discussing a theoretical model is immaterial. The important thing is that
the ****ing thing works! And that is the beauty of chemistry! -- Hurrah!

Aahahahah........that was fun! Enjoy chemistry!...... but **** enviros!
ahahahaha.........ahahahanson
----
"donald j haarmann" <[Only registered users see links. ].net> wrote in
news:jB%Zb.69359$[Only registered users see links. ].worldnet.att.net...

Reply With Quote
Reply

Tags
cabinet , chemical , curio , james , motor , william


Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

Forum Jump

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Turning Lead into 10k Gold: Is Modern Alchemy Dead ? ( Can We Sink the National Debt with $100 created 10k gold coins ? ) rev dan izzo Chemistry Forum 0 09-28-2003 10:43 PM
Turning Lead into Gold: Is Modern Alchemy Dead ? rev dan izzo Chemistry Forum 0 09-27-2003 09:24 PM


All times are GMT. The time now is 01:09 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Copyright 2005 - 2012 Molecular Station | All Rights Reserved
Page generated in 0.20534 seconds with 16 queries