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Detection, markers and prognostic/predictive significance ofdisseminated tumor cells.

Detection, markers and prognostic/predictive significance ofdisseminated tumor cells. - Cell Biology and Cell Culture

Detection, markers and prognostic/predictive significance ofdisseminated tumor cells. - Cell Biology Forum. Cell Culture Forum. Post and ask questions about cell culturing, cell lysis, cell transfection, cell growth, and cell biology.


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Old 04-10-2008, 04:56 AM
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Default Detection, markers and prognostic/predictive significance ofdisseminated tumor cells.



Disseminated tumor cells: detection, markers and prognostic/predictive
significance.

by Marc Lacroix
InTextoResearch, Baelen, Wallonia, Belgium
in Cancer Metastases Research, Nova Sciences Publishers, New York,
ISBN 978-1-60456-130-2 (2008), pp. 1-45.


The development of distant metastases is the major cause of death
from most cancers. In order to predict and prevent tumour spreading,
many attempts are being made to detect small numbers of tumour cells
that have shed from the primary lesions and have moved to lymph nodes,
blood or bone marrow ("disseminated tumor cells", or DTC). This
chapter presents the advantages and limitations of techniques used for
disseminated tumour cells (DTC) detection. DTC markers used in
bladder, breast, cervical, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, head and
neck, liver, lung, melanoma, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal, and
thyroid cancers are listed. The significance of DTC for prognosis and
prediction of response to therapy is examined, with a specific focus
on breast cancer. DTC viability and the notion of cell dormancy are
also discussed.




Markers used to detect DTC from various cancers by RT-PCR:

AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
Type(s) of cancer: liver

AGR2 Anterior gradient homolog 2 (Xenopus laevis)
Other name(s): Secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog (hAG-2) ;
XAG-2 homolog long protein (HPC8); GOB-4
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate

ANKRD30A Ankyrin repeat domain 30A
Other name(s): Breast cancer antigen NY-BR-1; B726P
Type(s) of cancer: breast

AR Androgen receptor
Type(s) of cancer: prostate

B305D Antigen B305D
Other name(s): B305D, isoform A (B305D-A) B305D, isoform C (B305D-C)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

B4GALNT1 Beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1
Other name(s): UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamineN-acetylneuraminyl)-
galactosylglucosylceramide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

CA9 Carbonic anhydrase IX
Other name(s): Renal cell carcinoma associated antigen G250
Type(s) of cancer: kidney

CALCA Calcitonin/calcitonin-related polypeptide, alpha
Type(s) of cancer: thyroid

CD44 Antigen CD44
Other name(s): Hermes antigen; PGP1
Type(s) of cancer: breast, head & neck

CDH1 Cadherin-1 (epithelial)
Other name(s): E-cadherin; uvomorulin
Type(s) of cancer: breast

CDH6 Cadherin 6, type 2, K-cadherin (fetal kidney)
Type(s) of cancer: kidney

CEACAM5 Carcino-embryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5
Other name(s): Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, esophagus, head & neck, lung,
pancreas, stomach, thyroid

CEACAM7 Carcino-embryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7
Other name(s): Carcinoembryonic antigen 2 (CGM2)
Type(s) of cancer: colorectal

CGB Chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide
Other name(s): -human chorionic gonadotropin (-HCG)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

CTSD Cathepsin-D
Type(s) of cancer: breast, kidney

CXCR4 Chemokine, CXC motif, receptor 4
Other name(s): Neuropeptide Y receptor Y3 (NPY3R); lipopolysaccharide-
associated protein 3 (LAP3); fusin
Type(s) of cancer: breast

DCT Dopachrome tautomerase
Other name(s): Tyrosinase-related-protein-2 (TYRP2); dopachrome delta-
isomerase
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

DDC Dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase)
Type(s) of cancer: prostate, stomach

EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
Other name(s): Oncogene ERBB1; c-erbB-1
Type(s) of cancer: bladder, breast, cervix, colorectal, head & neck,
lung, prostate

ERBB2 V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/
glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian) (ERBB2)
Other name(s): c-erbB-2,; HER-2/neu
Type(s) of cancer: breast

FABP1 Fatty acid binding protein 1, liver
Other name(s): Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate

FOLH1 Folate hydrolase
Other name(s): Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
Type(s) of cancer: prostate

GABRP Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor pi (p) subunit
Other name(s): GABA receptor A, pi (p) polypeptide (GABARAP); GABA-A
receptor, pi (p) polypeptide (GABA A(p))
Type(s) of cancer: breast

GALNT6 UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamineolypeptide
Other name(s): N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 ppGalNac-T(6);
-1-4-N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase 6; GalNAc transferase 6;
(GalNAcT6)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

GRP Gastrin-releasing peptide
Type(s) of cancer: lung, thyroid

KLK2 Kallikrein-related peptidase 2
Type(s) of cancer: prostate

KLK3 Kallikrein-related peptidase 3
Other name(s): Prostate specific antigen
Type(s) of cancer: prostate

KLK6 Kallikrein-related peptidase 6
Other name(s): Protease M; neurosin
Type(s) of cancer: colorectal, ovary

KRT7 Keratin 7
Other name(s): Cytokeratin 7 (CK7); sarcolectin (SCL)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, esophagus, lung, ovary

KRT8 Keratin 8
Other name(s): Cytokeratin 8 (CK8)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

KRT18 Keratin 18
Other name(s): Cytokeratin 18 (CK18)
Type(s) of cancer: bladder, breast, esophagus

KRT19 Keratin 19
Other name(s): Cytokeratin 19 (CK19)
Type(s) of cancer: bladder, breast, cervical, colorectal, esophagus,
head & neck, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, thyroid

KRT20 Keratin 20
Other name(s): Cytokeratin 20 (CK20)
Type(s) of cancer: bladder, breast, cervical, colorectal, esophagus,
head & neck, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, thyroid

MAGEA1 Melanoma antigen family A, 1
Other name(s): Mage1
Type(s) of cancer: liver

MAGEA2 Melanoma antigen family A, 2
Other name(s): Mage2
Type(s) of cancer: lung

MAGEA3 Melanoma antigen family A, 3
Other name(s): Mage3
Type(s) of cancer: breast, liver, lung, melanoma

MAGEA4 Melanoma antigen family A, 4
Other name(s): Mage4
Type(s) of cancer: lung

MAGEA6 Melanoma antigen family A, 6
Other name(s): Mage6
Type(s) of cancer: lung

MAGEA12 Melanoma antigen family A, 12
Other name(s): Mage12
Type(s) of cancer: lung

MET Protooncogene Met
Other name(s): Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR); renal cell
carcinoma, papillary 2 (RCCP2)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, stomach

MFI2 Antigen p97
Other name(s): Melanotransferrin
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

MITF Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

MLANA Melan-A
Other name(s): Melanoma antigen MART-1
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

MUC1 Mucin-1, transmembrane
Other name(s): Carcinoma antigen 15.3 (CA15.3);carcinoma antigen 27.29
(CA27.29); CD227 antigen; episialin; epithelial membrane antigen
(EMA); polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM); peanut-reactive urinary
mucin (PUM); tumor-associated glycoprotein 12 (TAG12)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, lung, stomach

MUC2 Mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal

MUC5B Mucin 5B, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming
Type(s) of cancer: breast

MUC7 Mucin 7, secreted
Type(s) of cancer: bladder, breast

OR51E2 Olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily E, member 2
Other name(s): Prostate-specific G protein-coupled receptor (PSGR)
Type(s) of cancer: prostate

OSBP2 Oxysterol binding protein 2
Type(s) of cancer: colorectal

PAX3 Paired box gene 3
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

PIP Prolactin-induced protein
Other name(s): Gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

PLAUR Plasminogen activator receptor, urokinase-type
Other name(s): Urokinase receptor (uPAR); CD87 antigen
Type(s) of cancer: breast

PSCA Prostate stem cell antigen
Type(s) of cancer: prostate, stomach

PTHLH Parathyroid hormone-like hormone
Other name(s): PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, head & neck

S100A14 S100 calcium binding protein A14
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate

S100A16 S100 calcium binding protein A16
Other name(s): S100F; aging-associated protein 13 (AAG13)
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate

SBEM Small breast epithelial mucin
Other name(s): BS106; B511S
Type(s) of cancer: breast

SCGB1D2 Secretoglobin family 1D member 2 (Prostatein-like)
Other name(s): Lipophilin B (LPB, LPHB); antigen BU101
Type(s) of cancer: breast

SCGB2A1 Secretoglobin family 2A, member 1
Other name(s): Mammaglobin 2 (MGB2); mammaglobin B (MGBB); lacryglobin
(LGB); lipophilin C (LPC, LPHC)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

SCGB2A2 Secretoglobin family 2A, member 2
Other name(s): Mammaglobin (MGB); mammaglobin 1 (MGB1); mammaglobin A
(MGBA)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

SERPINB3 Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade B
(ovalbumin), member 3
Other name(s): Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1)
Type(s) of cancer: esophagus, head & neck

SERPINB4 Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade B
(ovalbumin), member 4
Other name(s): Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 (SCCA2)
Type(s) of cancer: esophagus, head & neck

SERPINB5 Serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade B
(ovalbumin), member 5
Other name(s): Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

SILV Silver homolog (mouse)
Other name(s): 95 kD melanocyte-specific secreted glycoprotein;
Pmel17; Gp100
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

SPDEF SAM pointed domain containing ets transcription factor
Other name(s): Prostate epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor
(PDEF)
Type(s) of cancer: breast

TACSTD1 Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1
Other name(s): Colorectal carcinoma antigen CO17-1A; epithelial
glycoprotein 2 (EGP2); epithelial glycoprotein 40kD (EGP40);
epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM); epithelial-specific antigen
(ESA); gastrointestinal tumour associated antigen 733-2 (GA733-2);
KS1/4 antigen; KSA antigen; membrane component, chromosome 4, surface
marker 1 (M4S1); MK-1 antigen; MIC18 antigen; TROP-1 antigen
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, esophagus, lung

TERT Telomerase reverse transcriptase
Other name(s): Telomerase catalytic subunit
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal, liver, melanoma, stomach,
thyroid

TFF1 Trefoil factor 1
Other name(s): Breast cancer estrogen-inducible sequence (BCEI);
gastrointestinal trefoil protein (GTF);pS2 protein
Type(s) of cancer: breast

TFF3 Trefoil factor 3
Other name(s): Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF);p1.B
Type(s) of cancer: breast, colorectal

TG Thyroglobulin
Type(s) of cancer: thyroid

TPO Thyroid peroxidase
Type(s) of cancer: thyroid

TSHR Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor
Type(s) of cancer: thyroid

TSPAN8 Tetraspanin 8
Other name(s): Transmembrane 4 superfamily member 3 (TM4SF3); CO-029
Type(s) of cancer: colorectal

TYR Tyrosinase Oculocutaneous albinism IA
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

TYRP1 Tyrosinase-related protein 1
Other name(s): Melanoma antigen gp75
Type(s) of cancer: melanoma

UCHL1 Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1
Other name(s): Ubiquitin thiolesterase; protein gene product 9.5 (PGP
9.5)
Type(s) of cancer: lung

UPK1A Uroplakin 1A
Type(s) of cancer: bladder

UPK1B Uroplakin 1B
Type(s) of cancer: bladder

UPK2 Uroplakin 2
Type(s) of cancer: bladder

UPK3 Uroplakin 3
Type(s) of cancer: bladder

VIL1 Villin 1
Type(s) of cancer: colorectal
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