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Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ? - Botany Forum

Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ? - Botany Forum


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  #1  
Old 10-20-2005, 12:23 PM
Duncan
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?



Hi

For no other reason than it interests me I'm trying to get my head
around the way plants are named.

From a standing start I know that there are various naming schemes (if
that's the right word) and that different people have different ideas
on how to name plants.

I think I understand the basics of what goes on 'above' the Family in
the naming hierarchy and I'm happy with everything else down to the
species.

The question is, how do I know if something is a Variety, Cultivar or
Form ?

One of the examples I'm using is a plant I have in my garden

The label says Ajuga reptans 'Burgundy Glow'

Now I know that Ajuga is the Genus and reptans is the species (at
least I think I do) but I'm not sure how I decide what the 'Burgundy
Glow' bit is.

According to documentation I have read on the web and in books names
following the species should be prefixed with either var for Variety,
cv for Cultivar and something else for Form (which I have forgotten
for the time being). In the absence of this prefix, how do I decide
what 'type' the plant is.

I think this question may be a bit too basic for this group, if so
where should I be asking 'beginners' type questions like this ?

Many thanks
Duncan
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  #2  
Old 10-20-2005, 02:38 PM
monique
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Duncan wrote:


Varieties are, strictly speaking) naturally occuring and are usually
named with the abbreviation var. e.g. Callirhoe involucrata var.
lineariloba. But see below...

A cultivar is a variety developed or propagated in cultivation.
Sometimes plantsmen will take a naturally occuring variety and develop
it further on purpose, or else they will take a nice representative of
the species, slap a name on it, and charge more. Cultivar names are
written with the letters cv. and the cultivar name without quotes OR
they are written without the letters cv. and the cultivar name in single
quotes. e.g. Caryopteris clandonensis cv. Longwood Blue or Caryopteris
clandonensis 'Longwood Blue.' It often happens that a cultivar is a
hybrid of several species, in which case you may see a plant name with a
genus designation, no specific epithet, and a cultivar name. e.g.
Paphiopedilum 'Madame du Bovary-Plessis.' (I made that example up, but
you get the idea.)

A forma, strictly speaking, is a naturally occuring form that is only a
minor variation on the "normal" form. For example, there is a gorgeous
blue-flowered form of scarlet pimpernel, which usually has salmony-red
flowers. It is called Anagallis arvensis f. foemina.

To cloud the issue, though, it must be noted that plantsmen commonly
take these forms, slap cultivar names on them, and propagate them to
maintain the desired variation. There is also a looseness to the
English language that leads everyone to use the word "variety"
informally to apply to true varieties, to cultivars, and to forms, as in
"I saw that variety once when I was in Vancouver."

Your example of Ajuga reptans 'Burgundy Glow' is an example of a
cultivar. As to the origin of the cultivar--natural, bred up, or purely
illusory and for profit, one can't know without some research...

Clear as mud, yes?
Monique Reed
Biology Department
Texas A&M
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  #3  
Old 10-20-2005, 03:55 PM
Duncan
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

On Thu, 20 Oct 2005 09:38:13 -0500, monique
<[Only registered users see links. ].tamu.edu> wrote:


Ah, yes, clear as a clear thing, but still an excellent answer, thanks

I also have a Caryopteris clandonensis 'Heavenly Blue' in my garden I
really like it. More than Caryopteris clandonensis 'Worcester Gold'
anyway (horrid smelly spindly thing) .

One more question if you have time

Why do some people write Caryopteris x clandonensis ?

Do they do it just to be irritating or is there a good reason for it.

Cheers
Duncan

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  #4  
Old 10-20-2005, 04:10 PM
P van Rijckevorsel
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

"Duncan" <[Only registered users see links. ].uk> schreef
around the way plants are named.


***
Note that it is no longer allowed to use "cv."
so it is Ajuga reptans 'Burgundy Glow'
(never Ajuga reptans cv. Burgundy Glow)
* * *





***
A multiplication sign before an epithet indicates a hybridname. If a
multiplication sign is not available (for example in e-mail) a small letter
"x" is used. People may vary in their opinion if something is a hybrid, and
not all hybrids necessarily get a hybrid name.

PvR



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  #5  
Old 10-20-2005, 04:24 PM
Duncan
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

On Thu, 20 Oct 2005 18:10:26 +0200, "P van Rijckevorsel"
<[Only registered users see links. ]> wrote:


OK ... I think ... so If a plant is named Caryopteris x clandonensis
'Heavenly Blue' I guess it means that someone thinks that 'Heavenly
Blue' is a hybrid between two plants of the species clandonensis.
Whereas if it was Caryopteris 'Heavenly Blue' then someone thinks that
it is a hybrid of several species of Caryopteris ...

Cheers
Duncan
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  #6  
Old 10-20-2005, 04:29 PM
P van Rijckevorsel
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

"Duncan" <[Only registered users see links. ].uk> schreef in

***
Oh no. The cultivar epithet is entirely separate from the botanical bit, and
the "x" belongs tot the botanical bit, so:
* there are people who think
Caryopteris x clandonensis is a hybrid (hence the x)

* others think
Caryopteris clandonensis is a real species (no x)

PvR







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  #7  
Old 10-20-2005, 04:35 PM
dh321@excite.com
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Most gardeners say variety but actually mean cultivar, a blend or
portmanteau of cultivated variety. Ajuga reptans 'Burgundy Glow' is a
cultivar. By the way, Ajuga reptans is the species, and reptans is the
specific epithet.

Cultivar names are enclosed by single quotes and not italicized like
binomials. After 1958, cultivar names had to be in a modern language.
Many pre-1959 cultivars had Latin names, such as Euonymus alatus
'Compactus'. However, many modern-language cultivar names are much
older than 1959, including most fruit trees and flower bulbs, such as
'Jonathan' apple, named about 1826, and 'City of Haarlem' hyacinth,
named about 1898. Unfortunately, many plant catalogs still do not use
single quotes to identify cultivar names. Therefore, a gardener often
does not know if catalogs are referring to cultivar names or just
tradenames or common names.

Most perennial cultivars are clones. Seed propagated cultivars are
usually hybrids, often interspecific hybrids. Cultivars can be selected
from the wild but most originate in cultivation either by breeding or
selection.

A botanical variety or varietas is a subpopulation of a species
differing in a minor way from the species. Most honeylocust (Gleditsia
triacanthos) have thorns. The botanical variety, thornless honeylocust
(Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis) is a subpopulation of the species
that lacks thorns but varies in other characteristics such as height
and disease resistance. Most cultivated honeylocust are cultivars from
G. t. var. inermis, such as 'Moraine' and 'Halka'. The cultivar can be
written in several ways such as Gleditsia 'Moraine', Gleditsia
triacanthos 'Moraine' or Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis 'Moraine.'

Some companies coin tradenames for cultivars, which often are used as
cultivar names. Sunburst honeylocust is a tradename for 'Suncole'
honeylocust. Often it is written as 'Sunburst' honeylocust, which is
technically incorrect. A cultivar can also be patented. Tradenames do
not have to apply to a cultivar, which can be confusing. Cultivar names
in foreign languages are often given synonyms in other languages for
marketing purposes. Some cultivars are accidently given multiple names.
'Williams' Bon Chretien' pear from England was accidently named
'Bartlett' pear in the USA, and 'Bartlett' became the more widely used
name.

Plants labeled as botanical varieties or cultivars with Latin cultivar
names may be more variable than a cultivar with a name in a modern
language. For example, if you have ten blue Colorado spruce labeled
Picea pungens var. glauca or Picea pungens 'Glauca' some trees could
have pale blue leaves and some very intense blue leaves and also vary
in size, disease resistance and other characteristics. Ten individuals
of Picea pungens 'Hoopsi' would all have the same shade of blue leaves.

Forma is not used much anymore in gardening now that cultivar names are
in wide use. Forma is a botanical designation for a subspecific
category below variety. The International Code of Nomenclature for
Cultivated Plants has all the rules for naming cultivars.

David R. Hershey


References

Cultivar definitions
[Only registered users see links. ]

Cultivar on Wikipedia
[Only registered users see links. ]

The naming of plants
[Only registered users see links. ]

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  #8  
Old 10-20-2005, 08:40 PM
Cereus-validus-...........
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Cultivars can have many origins. They can be selected from hybrids, a
mutation of a species, chimeral variegates, etc. In current usage, variety
and form are botanical categories.

The valid naming of each follow a different set of rules.

[Only registered users see links. ]

[Only registered users see links. ]

In the case Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Heavenly Blue', 'Heavenly Blue' is
a named cultivar selected from the interspecific hybrid Caryopteris x
clandonensis. It is only one of several named cultivars of the popular
hybrid shrub available in the trade.

Caryopteris x clandonensis is a garden hybrid between Caryopteris incana and
Caryopteris mongholica.


"Duncan" <[Only registered users see links. ].uk> wrote in message
news:[Only registered users see links. ]...


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  #9  
Old 10-21-2005, 08:14 AM
Duncan
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Thanks for all this ... there is enough here to keep me 'amused' for
many hours

Thanks
Duncan



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  #10  
Old 10-21-2005, 12:15 PM
Malcolm Manners
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Default Variety Cultivar or Form, how do I know ?

Duncan wrote:
There is another bit of a glitch in all of this -- the International
Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) states that a
cultivar is not a variety, but also notes that there are countries in
which the word "variety" is a statutory term (Note 4) which is used as a
substitute for cultivar. E.g., the "Plant Variety Potection Act" refers
to cultivars, not botanical varieties.

Here's the text of the appropriate part of ICNCP for those interested:

Art.2 Definitions: Cultivar
6 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
CHAPTER II: DEFINITIONS
ARTICLE 2: THE CULTIVAR
2.1. The cultivar is the primary category of cultivated plants whose
nomenclature is
governed by this Code. The Rules for forming cultivar names are laid out
in Art. 19 of
this Code.
2.2. A cultivar is an assemblage of plants that has been selected for a
particular attribute
or combination of attributes and that is clearly distinct, uniform, and
stable in
these characteristics and that when propagated by appropriate means
retains those
characteristics.
Note 1. The botanical categories varietas (var.) and forma (f.) are not
the equivalent of cultivar
and these terms must not be automatically treated as equivalent terms
for ìcultivarî.
Note 2. The words ìvarietyî in English, ìvariétéî in French, ìvariedadî
in Spanish, ìvariedade
î in Portuguese, ìvarietàî in Italian, ìrasî in Dutch, ìSorteî in
German, ìsortî in Scandinavian
languages and Russian, ìpinzhongî in Chinese, ìengei-hinshuî in
Japanese, and
corresponding terms in other languages, have sometimes been used as
common or vernacular
equivalents to a cultivar.
Note 3. The words ìformî (in the sense of cultivated or garden form) in
English, ìFormî in
German, ìformeî in French, ìformaî in Spanish etc., have sometimes been
used as common or
vernacular equivalents to the word cultivar.
2.3. The English words ìvarietyî, ìformî, and ìstrainî or their
equivalent in other
languages must not be used for the word ìcultivarî when fulfilling the
Articles of this
Code nor in translations of this Code.
Note 4. Notwithstanding Art. 2.3, in certain national and international
legislation or other legal
conventions the word ìvarietyî or its equivalent in other languages is a
statutory or otherwise
legal term used to denominate a proven variant that is distinct,
uniform, and stable and is
exactly equivalent to the word ìcultivarî as defined in this Code.
2.4. Cultivars differ in their mode of origin and reproduction, for
example as
described in Art. 2.5-2.16. Whatever the means of propagation, only
those plants
which maintain the characteristcs that define a particular cultivar
maybe included
within that cultivar.
2.5. Plants of the same clone (which are asexually propagated from any
part of a
plant) may form a cultivar.

Definitions: Cultivar Art.2
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants – Seventh
Edition 7
Ex. 1. Asparagus officinalis ëCaletí, Fraxinus pennsylvanica ëNewportí,
Gerbera ëDelphií, Salix alba
ëLieveldeí, Salix matsudana ëTortuosaí, Solanum tuberosum ëWiljaí,
Syringa vulgaris ëAndenken an
Ludwig Späthí, and Tulipa ëApeldoorní are clonal cultivars.
2.6. Plants of a topophysic clone (which are asexually derived from
particular parts
of a plant) may form a cultivar.
Ex. 2. Abies amabilis ëSpreading Starí and Abies koreana ëProstrate
Beautyí were derived from lateral
branching growth of the parent plants.
2.7. Plants of a cyclophysic clone (which are asexually derived from a
particular
phase of a plant’s growth cycle) may form a cultivar.
Ex. 3. Ficus binnendijkii cultivars ëAmstel Kingí, ëAmstel Queení, and
ëAliií all represent juvenile
forms of the species with lanceolate leaves, whereas the adult form has
elliptic leaves; Chamaecyparis
lawsoniana ëEllwoodiií was derived from juvenile cutting material;
Hedera helix ëArborescensí was
derived from adult cutting material.
2.8. Plants of a clone which are derived from aberrant growth may form a
cultivar.
Ex. 4. Picea abies ëLittle Gemí is a dwarf plant derived from
propagation of a witches’ broom found
on P. abies ëNidiformisí, itself a witches’ broom found on a plant of P.
abies.
2.9. Plants of the same chimaera (which have one or more mutant tissues
in intimate
association with normal tissue) may form a cultivar.
Ex. 5. Acer platanoides ëDrummondiií, Daphne •burkwoodii ëCarol Mackieí,
Filipendula ulmaria
ëVariegataí, Ilex myrtifolia ëAureaí, Juniperus chinensis ëPlumosa
Aureovariegataí, Pelargonium ëFreak
of Natureí, potato ëRed Craigs Royalí, Salvia officinalis ëTricolorí,
Spiraea japonica ëAnthony Watererí,
and Vinca major ëVariegataí are chimaeras whose characteristics are
effected by a proportion of mutant
tissue.
2.10. Plants of the same graft-chimaera (which are composed of
vegetative tissues
from two or more plants of different taxonomic units in intimate
association and which
originate by grafting) may form a cultivar. (See also Art. 4.1.)
Ex. 6. +Crataegomespilus ëDardariií combines the tissues of Crataegus
monogyna and Mespilus
germanica; Syringa ëCorrelataí combines the tissues of S. •chinensis and
S. vulgaris.
2.11. An assemblage of individual plants grown from seed derived from
uncontrolled
pollination may form a cultivar when it meets the criteria laid down in
Art. 2.2 and
when it can be distinguished consistently by one or more characters even
though the
individual plants of the assemblage may not necessarily be genetically
uniform.
Ex. 7. Ballota nigra ëArcher’s Varietyí, Delphinium ëAstolatí, Geum
ëLady Strathedení, Lavatera ëIce
Coolí, Milium effusum ëAureumí, Verbena hastata ëRoseaí, and Viola
ëPenny Blackí are cultivars which
are propagated from seed.
Ex. 8. The seed-raised Betula pendula ëVissingsøí, Hippophae rhamnoides
ëAggertangení, Larix
kaempferi ëPalsgård Vellingí, Prunus padus ëSandgaardí, and Rosa
carolina ëIndaí were selected and
refined from plants from known geographical sources.

Art.2 Definitions: Cultivar
8 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
Ex. 9. When seed is sown of the yellow-fruited cultivar Viburnum opulus
ëXanthocarpumí, a
proportion of the resulting seedlings is indistinguishable from the
parent plant: such progeny is to be
treated as being part of the same cultivar.
2.12. Plants of a line (resulting from repeated self-fertilization or
inbreeding) may
form a cultivar.
Ex. 10. Beta vulgaris ëSP6 926-0í, Helianthus annuus ëHA306í, Lactuca
sativa ëKagraner Sommerí,
Phaseolus vulgaris ëContenderí, Triticum aestivum ëMarquisí, and Zea
mays ëWisconsin 153í are all
lines.
2.13. Plants of a multiline (made up of several closely related lines)
may form a
cultivar.
Ex. 11. Agropyron intermedium ëClarkeí, Asparagus officinalis
ëLucullusí, Glycine max ëJupiter-Rí,
Lotus corniculatus ëCreeí, Macroptilium atropurpureum ëAztecí, and
Trifolium repens ëStarí are all
multilines.
2.14. Plants that are from the same F1 hybrid (the result of a
deliberate repeatable
single cross between two pure-bred lines) may form a cultivar.
Ex. 12. Brassica oleracea ëKing Arthurí, Capsicum annuum ëDelightí, and
Sorghum bicolor ëTexas
610í are all F1 hybrids.
2.15. An assemblage of plants grown from seed that is repeatedly
collected from a
particular provenance and that is clearly distinguishable by one or more
characters (a
topovariant) may form a cultivar.
Ex. 13. If Picea abies seedlings from the Dutch provenance Gortel-1 are
considered to be recognizable
as having distinguishable attributes in common, they could be treated as
a cultivar.
Ex. 14. Trials of Eucalyptus camaldulensis have demonstrated that
populations from a number of
different locations (provenances) produce fast-growing plants adapted to
particular environmental
conditions: provided such assemblages of plants meet the requirements of
Art 2.2, they could be treated
as separate cultivars.
2.16. An assemblage of genetically modified plants that demonstrates new
attributes
or characteristics following the deliberate implantation of genetic
material from
different germplasm, may form a cultivar.
Note 5. In practice, such an assemblage is often marketed from one or
more lines or multilines
that have been genetically modified. These lines or multilines often
remain in a constant state
of development making the naming of such an assemblage as cultivars a
futile exercise.
Generally, these assemblages are marketed under trademarks.
2.17. In considering whether two or more plants belong to the same or
different
cultivars, their origins are irrelevant. Cultivars that cannot be
distinguished from others
by any of the means currently adopted for cultivar determination in the
group
concerned are treated as one cultivar.

Definitions: Cultivar, Group Art.2-Art.3
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants – Seventh
Edition 9
Ex. 15. Some cultivars derived from branch sports of Pittosporum
ëGarnettiií are indistinguishable and
therefore belong to a single cultivar even though these sports have
occurred at different times in different
locations. Pittosporum ëMargaret Turnbullí which originated in New
Zealand appears to be identical
with P. ëJohn Flanaganí from Ireland: the International Cultivar
Registration Authority for Pittosporum
designated P. ëMargaret Turnbullí as the accepted name with P. ëJohn
Flanaganí as a later synonym.
Ex. 16. Dianthus ëWilliam Simí produces distinguishable mutants that by
further mutation give rise to a
range of variants some of which are indistinguishable from D. ëWilliam
Simí.
2.18. If a change in the method of propagation of a cultivar leads to a
change in the
set of characters by which it is distinguished, the plants so produced
are not regarded as
belonging to the same cultivar.
Ex. 17. The double-flowered Campanula trachelium ëBerniceí is usually
vegetatively propagated. If
grown from seed, it may produce a wide range of plants varying in
height, degree of doubling, and
colour: such seed-raised plants are not to be considered the same as,
nor be named as, Campanula
trachelium ëBerniceí unless the individual plants cannot be
distinguished from this cultivar.
Ex. 18. Cereus hildmannianus ëMonstrosusí is a teratological form of a
cactus that is generally
increased from cuttings. However, on sowing seed, a proportion of
seedlings show the same monstrose
condition. Whichever way propagation is carried out, the same name is to
be applied to the monstrose
plants that form the cultivar: the non-monstrose plants are treated as
indistinguishable parts of the species.
Ex. 19. Hosta ëHalcyoní is vegetatively propagated, yet when increased
by micropropagation a number
of mutants may be generated: one of these has been isolated and
increased to form the cultivar H. ëJuneí.
2.19. If a rootstock is a cultivar, it is to be named accordingly.
Plants that are grafted
onto rootstocks are named according to the name of the plant that
provides the material
for grafting onto the rootstock (the scion).
Ex. 20. The apple, Malus domestica ëJames Grieveí grafted onto the
rootstock known as Malus
domestica ëM9í, retains the epithet ëJames Grieveí despite the dwarfing
effect induced by the particular
rootstock.
Ex. 21. When a cultivar of Corylus avellana (European hazel) is grafted
onto a stock of Corylus colurna
(Turkish hazel), the resulting plant is regarded as being a cultivar of
C. avellana.
2.20. Plants whose characteristics are maintained solely by regular
practices of
cultivation (covariants) are not to be considered as distinct cultivars.
Ex. 22. Apples trained as espaliers retain the same names as those which
are tree-grown; topiary
specimens of Buxus sempervirens and its cultivars may not receive new
cultivar names; bonsai plants
retain the names of the plants from which they were derived.
ARTICLE 3: THE GROUP
3.1. A Group is a formal category for assembling cultivars, individual
plants or
assemblages of plants on the basis of defined similarity (but see Art.
3.3). Criteria for
forming and maintaining a Group vary according to the required purposes
of particular
users. The Rules for forming Group names are laid out in Art. 20 of this
Code.

Art.3 Definitions: Group
10 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
Ex. 1. In Primula, the cultivars ëMacWatt’s Blueí, ëOld Irish Scentedí,
and ëOsborne Greení are best
cultivated under similar outdoor conditions and have been assembled
under Primula Border Auricula
Group. (See B. Hyatt, Auriculas 86. 1989)
Ex. 2. Iris Dutch Group has been designated to include the complex of
early flowering cultivars arising
mainly from I. tingitana, I. xiphium var. lusitanica and I. xiphium var.
praecox. (See International
checklist for hyacinths and miscellaneous bulbs 301. 1991)
Ex. 3. The cultivars of Festuca rubra have been allocated to three
Groups, Hexaploid Non-creeping
Group, Hexaploid Creeping Group and Octoploid Creeping Group, each with
a distinct set of attributes.
(See R. Duyvendak et al., Rasen Turf Gazon 3: 53ñ62. 1981)
3.2. A taxonomic unit at or below the rank of species that is no longer
recognized as
having taxonomic value in botany yet which continues to have utility in
agricultural,
horticultural or silvicultural classification, may be designated as a
Group.
Ex. 4. Rhododendron boothii Mishmiense Group is based on R. mishmiense,
a species now generally
placed in the synonymy of R. boothii but which nonetheless represents a
recognizable component of the
variation within R. boothii that continues to have horticultural value.
(See The Royal Horticultural
Society, An alphabetical checklist of rhododendron species 1981)
Ex. 5. If Hosta fortunei is no longer recognised as a species, the
epithet ìfortuneiî may be used to form
H. Fortunei Group if it is thought that individual cultivars and plants
previously assigned to that species
continue to need to be so assembled.
Ex. 6. If Brassica oleracea var. sabauda (published by Linnaeus in 1753)
is no longer recognized as an
infraspecific taxonomic unit at the rank of varietas (var.) within the
species, it may be referred to as
Brassica oleracea Sabauda Group.
Note 1. Authors may have used other designations such as ìsortî, ìtypeî
or ìhybridsî as
terminology equivalent to the word ìGroupî: such terms are to be
replaced by the word
ìGroupî.
Ex. 7. Brachyglottis Dunedin Hybrids was described (under Senecio) by D.
L. Clarke (Bean, Trees and
shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, 4: 350. 1980) to cover a
miscellany of similar plants derived from
hybridization of a number of species of doubtful taxonomic status. If
the progeny is recognized as
forming a Group, the name is to be written as Brachyglottis Dunedin Group.
Note 2. In Japan, a particular sort of cultivar grouping called gei is
widely practised whereby
related or similar cultivars are assembled according to distinctive
classes of habit, leaf, flower,
or fruit characteristics: although the word ìgeiî is not usually
incorporated within the epithet,
the word ìGroupî may be added if it is thought that a particular gei
forms a Group.
Ex. 8. Among cultivated forms of Neofinetia falcata are the gei Hariba
(forms with needle-like
leaves), Mameba (with squat, bean-like leaves), Shiro-fukurin (with
white-striped leaves), and Tora-fu
(with tiger-banded leaves): each of these gei contains numerous named
selections, some of which have
been in cultivation for centuries. If these gei are recognized as
Groups, they are to be written
Neofinetia falcata Hariba Group, N. falcata Mameba Group, N. falcata
Shiro-fukurin Group, and N.
falcata Tora-fu Group respectively.
3.3. The grex (plural: greges, although often written as grexes), a
particular sort of
Group based solely on specified parentage, may only be used in orchid
nomenclature.

Definitions: Group Art.3
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants – Seventh
Edition 11
Ex. 9. The Group name for the cross Paphiopedilum Atlantis grex •
Paphiopedilum Lucifer grex is
Paphiopedilum Sorel grex.
3.4. A cultivar, plant or assemblage of plants might be designated as
belonging to
more than one Group should such assignments have a practical purpose.
Ex. 10. Solanum tuberosum ëDesireeí may be designated part of a Maincrop
Group and a Red-skinned
Group since both such designations may be practical to buyers of
potatoes. It may thus be written
Solanum tuberosum (Maincrop Group) ëDesireeí in one classification or as
Solanum tuberosum (Redskinned
Group) ëDesireeí in another, depending on the purpose of the
classification used.
3.5. When a Group is divided or when two or more Groups are united or
when the
circumscription of a Group is otherwise significantly re-defined in such
a way that the
resulting Group no longer has the same circumscription, a new name must
be given for
the resulting Group(s).
Ex. 11. In the example given above, Solanum tuberosum Maincrop Group and
S. tuberosum Redskinned
Group may be united to form a re-circumscribed Solanum tuberosum
Maincrop Red-skinned
Group.
Ex. 12. Tulipa Dutch Breeders Group and T. English Breeders Group were
united into the newly
circumscribed T. Breeders Group. (See J. F. Ch. Dix, A classified list
of tulip names 4. 1958)
Ex. 13. Recent breeding programmes in Begonia have led to the
recognition of separate Groups within
the existing Elatior Group. In due course these may be given new Group
names instead of being referred
to the Elatior Group as currently circumscribed.
Ex. 14. In the 1950s, a number of Magnolia hybrids were developed by D.
T. Gresham and these have
been referred to as Gresham Hybrids or as the Gresham Group. The
inclusion of these hybrids in such a
Group is unsatisfactory, the Group name being merely a statement of
origin with individual members not
showing attributes in common. Two distinct Groups of Gresham’s hybrids
have, however, been
recognized as Svelte Brunette Group and Buxom Nordic Blonde Group, each
of which has a distinct set
of characters. (See J. M. Gardiner, Magnolias 118ñ120. 1989)
3.6. Notwithstanding Art. 3.5, when the name of one or more of the
component
parents of an orchid grex is considered to be a synonym of another, a
new name for the
grex is not to be established, but the earliest established name for the
same grex is to be
used.
Ex. 15. Dendrobium ostrinoglossum has been reduced to synonymy under D.
lasianthera: the grex D.
Soo Chee established in 1985 with the stated parentage D. Caesar grex •
D. lasianthera becomes a
synonym of D. Alan Mann grex which was established in 1970 with the
stated parentage D. Caesar grex
• D. ostrinoglossum.
3.7. Notwithstanding Art. 3.5, when the name of one or more parents of
an orchid
grex is changed for any other nomenclatural or taxonomic reason other
than that
covered by Art. 3.6, a new grex name is not to be established but the
parentage of the
grex is re-stated.

Art.3-Art.5 Definitions: Graft-chimaera, Denomination class
12 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
Ex. 16. If Aerides roseum is considered distinct from A. multiflorum and
if one of the parents is then
assigned to A. roseum, the stated parentage of A. Renades Arunoday grex
is changed from A.
multiflorum • Renanthera imschootiana to A. roseum • R. imschootiana
(see Orch. Rev. Suppl. 110:
64. Jul. 2002).
ARTICLE 4: THE GRAFT-CHIMAERA
4.1. A graft-chimaera is a plant that results from the grafting of the
vegetative
tissues of two or more plants belonging to different taxonomic units and
is not a sexual
hybrid. Rules for the formation of names of graft-chimaeras at the rank
of genus are
laid out in Art. 21 of this Code. Graft-chimaeras below the rank of
genus may be
recognized as cultivars (Art. 2.10 & 21.5).
ARTICLE 5: THE DENOMINATION CLASS
5.1. A denomination class is the unit within which the use of a cultivar
or Group
epithet may not be duplicated except when re-use of a cultivar epithet
is permitted in
accordance with Art. 27 (but see also Art. 19.9).
5.2. A denomination class under the provisions of this Code is a single
genus or
hybrid genus unless a special denomination class has been determined by
the I.S.H.S.
Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration. (See Appendix III
for the list
of current denomination classes that are not a single genus or hybrid
genus.)
Ex. 1. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has been designated as a denomination
class. Although a cultivar epithet
may not be repeated in that species, it may be used once in the
remainder of the genus which forms a
second denomination class.
Ex. 2. Because plants of the various genera in the tribe Hylocereeae
within the family Cactaceae are
known to hybridize freely and because the taxonomic status of those
genera is uncertain, the I.S.H.S.
Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration has designated
Hylocereeae as the
denomination class for this group of cacti.
Note 1. Notwithstanding Art. 5.2, statutory plant registration
authorities sometimes define their
own denomination classes for the purposes of particular national or
international legislation.
Such classes are usually used by those statutory authorities for the
same purposes as denomination
classes as defined in this Code.
5.3. When a denomination class is divided or when two or more denomination
classes are united or the limits of a denomination class are changed in
any way, the new
denomination class is to be announced and published by the appropriate
International
Cultivar Registration Authority.
5.4. When a denomination class is a taxonomic unit whose nomenclature is
governed by the I.C.B.N. is divided or when two or more such
denomination classes are
united, the Rules of botanical nomenclature apply (I.C.B.N., Art. 11.3)
unless a
different denomination class is established under the provisions of Art.
5.2.

Definitions: Denomination class, Publication, Names and epithets
Art.5-Art.7
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants – Seventh
Edition 13
Ex. 3. It has been proposed that the genera Gaultheria (validly
published in 1753) and Pernettya
(validly published in 1825) be united. If this proposal is accepted, the
combined denomination class must
be Gaultheria which has priority in publication.
Ex. 4. If the segregation of Lycianthes and Lycopersicon from the genus
Solanum is accepted, two new
denomination classes are automatically created unless it is decided that
all three genera be considered part
of the same special denomination class under the provisions of Art. 5.2.
5.5. Notwithstanding Art. 5.1, in orchids only, if a cultivar name has been
established for more than one cultivar within a denomination class but
within
different taxonomic units, the cultivar epithet must be linked to the
name of the
species or grex to which it applies.
Ex. 5. The epithet ëSaint Thomasí has been applied to a cultivar of both
Lycaste aromatica and L.
Wyld Spirit: the names must be written Lycaste aromatica ëSaint Thomasí
and Lycaste Wyld Spirit
ëSaint Thomasí respectively and not simply as Lycaste ëSaint Thomasí.
ARTICLE 6: PUBLICATION
6.1. Publication is effected in accordance with Art. 22.
ARTICLE 7: NAMES AND EPITHETS
7.1. The name of a cultivar or Group consists of the name of the genus
or lower
taxonomic unit to which it is assigned together with a cultivar or Group
epithet. The
name may be written in a variety of equivalent ways.
Ex. 1. Fragaria ëCambridge Favouriteí, Fragaria ananassa ëCambridge
Favouriteí, strawberry
ëCambridge Favouriteí, ëCambridge Favouriteí strawberry, Annanaserdbeere
ëCambridge Favouriteí (in
German), fraise ëCambridge Favouriteí (in French) and ëCambridge
Favouriteí maranguerio (in
Portuguese) are names for the same cultivar.
Note 1. In legislative texts, especially those dealing with intellectual
property rights issues, the
term ìgeneric designationî is exactly equivalent to the term ìnameî as
defined in Art. 7.1.
7.2. Epithets in the names of cultivars or Groups are written in such a
way so as to
demonstrate the status of the category concerned (Art. 13-14).
7.3. Epithets in the names of cultivars and Groups are formed according
to the
provisions of Art. 19 and Art. 20 respectively.
Recommendation 7A
7A.1. Epithets in names of cultivars and Groups should be distinguished
typographically
from names of the taxonomic units to which they are assigned: for
example they should not be
printed in italic typeface if the widespread convention of using italics
for names of genera and
lower taxonomic units is adopted in the work.
Ex. 2. Aconitum napellus subsp. lobelianum ëBergfürstí and Chamaecyparis
lawsoniana ëSilver
Queení should not to be printed as Aconitum napellus subsp. lobelianum
ëBergfürstí or Chamaecyparis
lawsoniana ëSilver Queení.

Art.7-Art.10 Definitions: Date of name, Established name, Accepted name
14 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
Ex. 3. It is preferable to write Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group as
opposed to Brassica oleracea
Gemmifera Group.
ARTICLE 8: DATE OF A NAME
8.1. The date of the name of a cultivar, Group, or intergeneric chimaera
is that of its
establishment (see Art. 24). When the various conditions for
establishment are not
fulfilled simultaneously, the date of the name is that on which the
final condition was
fulfilled.
8.2. Correction of the original spelling of a cultivar or Group epithet
(Art. 32.3) does
not affect the date of that name.
ARTICLE 9: ESTABLISHED NAMES
9.1. An established name is one that is in accordance with Art. 24 of
this Code.
Note 1. A name that is established under the Rules of this Code might
not be in conformity
with the requirements of local legislation (see also Art. 28.2).
ARTICLE 10: ACCEPTED NAMES
10.1. The accepted name is the earliest established one (Art. 24.1) that
must be adopted
for a cultivar, Group, or intergeneric chimaera under the Rules of this
Code (but see
Art. 10.3-10.4).
10.2. Notwithstanding Art. 10.1, a Group may have more than one accepted
name
(see Art. 29.2).
Ex. 1. Brassica oleracea Sabauda Group may alternatively be known in
English as B. oleracea Savoy
Cabbage Group or any equivalent of this in other languages.
Ex. 2. Fagus sylvatica Purple-leaved Group and Brassica oleracea
Brussels Sprout Group or names
with equivalent epithets in any language other than Latin may be used as
alternatives to F. sylvatica
Atropunicea Group and B. oleracea Gemmifera Group.
10.3. A name that is contrary to the Rules of this Code yet which has
become widely
used may be designated an accepted name if the appropriate International
Cultivar
Registration Authority (a) publishes the basis for its decision, and (b)
remits that
published basis to the I.U.B.S. Commission for the Nomenclature of
Cultivated Plants
(see Art. 17.1).
Ex. 3. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana ëGreen Pillarí is a later name (1960)
for C. lawsoniana ëJackman’s
Varietyí (1947) and has entered general use to such an extent that the
International Cultivar Registration
Authority for conifers designated the later name as the accepted name:
the basis for that decision was
published in the International conifer register 3: 89. 1992.
10.4. Notwithstanding Art 10.3, if an appropriate International Cultivar
Registration
Authority does not exist, anyone may publish a proposal to accept a name
that is

Definitions:Accepted name, Conserved name, Trade designation Art.10-Art.12
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants – Seventh
Edition 15
contrary to the Rules of this Code if such a name is in widespread use:
that published
proposal (cf. Art. 22) must be remitted to the I.U.B.S. Commission for the
Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants for a ruling on whether such a name is
to be
conserved (see Art. 17.1).
Ex. 4. The names Dieffenbachia ëExotica Perfecta Compactaí and D.
ëCompactaí refer to the same
cultivar, the latter being more recent. Since the first name is often
inaccurately written, it has led to
confusion with the cultivars D. ëExoticaí and D. ëExotica Perfectaí.
Furthermore, the name is often
written as Dieffenbachia ëExotica Compactaí. It has been proposed that
the later name D. ëCompactaí be
the accepted name in order to avoid such ambiguity. (See Hetterscheid
and van Vliet, Vakbl. Bloem.
42(50): 32ñ37. 1987.)
10.5. An International Cultivar Registration Authority may also
designate a name as
accepted if (a) selecting a competing name from those already in use
(Art. 26.2-26.3),
or (b) permitting re-use of a name (Art. 27.2).
10.6. In the event that there is an objection to a designation made
under Art. 10.3 or
Art. 10.5 or a proposal made under Art. 10.4, application may be made to
the I.U.B.S.
Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants for a definitive
ruling (see Art.
17.1).
ARTICLE 11: CONSERVED NAMES
11.1. A conserved name is one that, although otherwise contrary to the
Rules of this
Code, must be adopted for a cultivar or Group by a ruling of the
I.U.B.S. Commission
for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (see Art. 17).
ARTICLE 12: TRADE DESIGNATIONS
12.1. A trade designation is not a name but is a device that is usually
used for
marketing a cultivar or Group in place of its accepted name (Art. 10.1)
when the
accepted name is not considered suitable for marketing purposes.
Ex. 1. In 1988, UK Plant Breeders’ Rights Grant No. 3743 was issued for
a rose with the cultivar
epithet ëKorlanumí. The cultivar is marketed as ìrose Surreyî, ìrose
Sommerwindî, and ìrose Vente
d’Etéî in different countries: these are not names but are to be
regarded as being trade designations and
may be written rose SURREY (ëKorlanumí), rose SOMMERWIND (ëKorlanumí),
and rose VENTE D'ETÉ
(ëKorlanumí) respectively.
Ex. 2. The name Syringa vulgaris ëAndenken an Ludwig Späthí was
established in 1883 and under the
Rules of this Code is the accepted name for the cultivar. Due to
prolonged use of the alternative
designation ìLudwig Spaethî by North American nurserymen, the
International Cultivar Registration
Authority for lilacs has designated S. vulgaris LUDWIG SPAETH as being a
trade designation for the
cultivar.
12.2. A trade designation is not to be confused with a synonym. For the
purposes of
this Code a synonym is an established name (Art. 9.1) that is not the
accepted name
(Art. 10.1).

Art.12 Definitions: Trade designation
16 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants - Seventh
Edition
12.3. A trade designation is always to be cited together with, or in
juxtaposition to,
the accepted name.
Recommendation 12A
12A.1. Trade designations should be reported to the appropriate
International Cultivar
Registration Authority.

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