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[BBF] News Issue #4 - Recent bamboo developments in Brazil regarding CHINA/BELGIUM Cooperation

[BBF] News Issue #4 - Recent bamboo developments in Brazil regarding CHINA/BELGIUM Cooperation - Botany Forum

[BBF] News Issue #4 - Recent bamboo developments in Brazil regarding CHINA/BELGIUM Cooperation - Botany Forum


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Old 12-21-2003, 04:53 PM
Joao Paulo Paglione
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Default [BBF] News Issue #4 - Recent bamboo developments in Brazil regarding CHINA/BELGIUM Cooperation



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(about 1 megabyte WORD .DOC)

Sunday, December 21st 2003
ENGLISH VERSION
[BBF] N E W S B U L L E T I N - VOLUME I - ISSUE #4

MERRY CHRISTMAS
FELIZ NATAL
FELIZ AÑO NUEVO

WHO WE ARE:

A multi-disciplinary group of individuals whose mission is to promote
the sustainable use of bamboo in Brazil.

A decentralized network of various existing NGOs, institutes and
entities located throughout Brazil with similar goals, ideas, and
research.

Seeking new collaborators.

 João Paulo Freire Paglione – Founder, Bambubrasil.org
 Raphael Vasconcellos –
 Co-Founder, Bambu-Brasil Group, Bambubrasileiro.com
 Prof. Marco Pereira – Co-Founder, University Professor,
UNESP/BAURU
 Celina Llerena – Architect, Founder of EBIOBAMBU
 Rubens Cardoso – Architect of First Bamboo Social Housing
Unit, consultant for INBAMBU
 Edson Sartori – Engineer of First Bamboo Social Housing Unit,
consultant for INBAMBU
 André Costa – University Student at UFRGS (Universidade
Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
 Marcos Marques – Permaculturalist-Bamboo innovator, Founder
of Sitio Vagalume, Civil Engineer, Professor for IPAB (Permaculture
Institute of Southern Brazil)

WHAT WE DO WITH BAMBOO:

 Architecture
 Bicycles
 Construction
 Discussion
 Eco-tourism
 Handicrafts
 Irrigation
 Instruments
 Parks
 Social Housing
 Nurseries

"Bamboo was always traditionally used rurally in Brazil. However, like
much of Asia, it was the poor man's wood and not trusted by the
population as a long-term building material. In recent years, bamboo
development escalated throughout the country."

Brazilians from the state of Alagoas visit China and discuss bilateral
cooperation

21/01/2003

During an official visit to the People's Republic of China, lead by
the lieutenant governor of Alagoas, Luis Abílio,

FOTO 1: Anji County, CBRC 2001 International Training Course

He was welcomed by the consul of Brazil João Mendonça in Shanghai.
They discussed a partnership with the consulate to promote existing
investments in the state of Alagoas, Brazil and also to encourage
tourism there for Chinese tourists and businessman to include in their
future destinations.

The consul reaffirmed the initiative of the Alagoas and discussed
several possibilities for trade, which most likely will surface after
the visit. He offered to serve as a facilitator between the state of
Alagoas and the Chinese provinces.

The committee already participated in meeting a group of 25
businessman interested in developing joint ventures in Alagoas. In
Nanjing, the first capital of China, the Alagoans were welcomed by
Shan Shu, the governor of the province of Jiangser.

Amid many already established contacts, a visit to the director of
Nanjing Forestry University and the Bamboo Research Institute is in
order. He spoke about the diverse uses of the plant including his
belief that bamboo is the primary product being exploited sustain ably
in China.

FOTO 2: From left to right: Mr. Ding, Raphael Vasconcellos, Lucio
Roitman, and Prof. Marco Pereira taken in May 2001 during China
National Bamboo Research Centre's International Training Course on
Bamboo Technology and TCDC (Technical Cooperation Amongst Developing
Countries)

ARTICLE AVAILABLE IN PORTUGUESE @
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INBAMBU promotes Bamboo Construction Workshop
"Construções com Bambu"

01/12/2003

The Bamboo Institute brought the year to a close announcing a Bamboo
Construction workshop on December 10th & 11th – "Oficina de Construção
de Estrutura Parabolóide para Coberturas." at the Federal University
of Alagoas (Universidade Federal de Alagoas). Professor Oscar Hidalgo
Lopez, from the National University of Colombia, held the workshop and
lectured on "The extraordinary characteristics of bamboo and it's
diverse application in construction" and "Taking advantage of bamboo's
properties in various types of structures".
More photos @ [Only registered users see links. ]

Informações: Instituto do Bambu (82) 214-1503, Sebrae (82) 216-1642.

RESEARCH

INBAMBU
UNESP
ESALQ/USP
UNICAMP
BAMCRUS
SITIO VAGALUME / IPAB

PROJECTS

BIEN:
(Bamboo Information Exchange Network)
BAMBUCRACIA
BAMBUDAS
BAMBUSCOLA

MAILING LIST

[Only registered users see links. ]

ARTICLES


NEWS


EVENTS

In Brazil and The World

GALLERY

Bamboo gallery – 300+ fotos

DISCUSSION

LINKS

DONATE

CONTACT US



[Only registered users see links. ]

INTRODUCTION

Many people have asked us why, how, where and what we were planning to
do once we said that we wanted to start up a development project in
Brazil . For this purpose, and to have an educated and well-founded
answer, we decided to write this document.

For a long time we have been thinking about doing something else with
our lives. We were looking for a challenge to put our limited talents
to a greater use and where we (and others?) could learn from our
experiences.

From our professional background as architect - urbanist (Sven and
collegue Danny), communications and management specialist (Hilde),
construction engineer (Pieter), technical engineer specialised in
outdoor recreation (Jeroen), economist (Sebastien) and photographer
(Marian) we examined the possibilities to start up this project. In
2001 we started our search for a good location and specialised
knowledge in tourism and bamboo. As to why finally Brazil was chosen
as a destination, there are too many reasons to mention here. Fact is
that Brazil is a developing country, with a great deal of poverty and
social injustice but still has many opportunities…
In November 2003 three of the project members visited Brazil . On this
(prospecting) journey the different possible locations were examined
and local government officials and local professionals in the field of
construction and tourism were contacted. Several project members will
be starting the project up in 2004 in Brazil , while others will
provide support and a link to Belgium .

The project members are;
• Sven Mouton; architect-urbanist
• Danny Vaes; architect-urbanist
• Hilde Duerinck; corporate communication and management specialist
• Pieter Loose; student construction engineer (thesis project)
• Jeroen Gillis; technical engineer and outdoor recreation specialist
• Sebastien Lauwers, student economy (thesis project)
• Stijn Van Rossum, web site constructor
• Marianne Hommersom; student photography (theme project)
This document is divided in three main parts; the project mission, a
substantiation for the use of bamboo and tourism, and the conclusion.
The hurried reader can restrict him/herself to the two first and the
last chapter.

Project Mission

The main objective is to obtain a sustainable poverty reduction for a
number of Brazilian families living below the poverty line by low cost
housing and creating a regular income in tourism. Moreover we want to
make locals conscious of the importance of the Mata Atlantica
rainforest, and help restoring it by setting up bamboo plantations.
Keeping in mind that it is better to teach people how to fish and to
hunt, rather than to serve them a meal, we conceived this project as a
learning project. We want to obtain a sustainable development. This
means improving human welfare without degrading the environment
(Belcher, 1995) .Since sustainable development has to satisfy local
needs, the involvement of the locals with the planning and execution
of the project is essential.
Main objectives: -Teaching poor and/or unemployed locals how to build
with affordable and ecological materials such as bamboo and loam.
-Providing poor and/or unemployed locals with practical knowledge that
they can use to find, create or expand a job in tourism. -Create a
reforestation programm by educating locals in how to set up and
maintain a bamboo plantation in order to restore damaged rainforest.



Fig. 1; left; burning of the rainforest; right; young bamboo
plantation (at EBIOBAMBU - Celina Llerana)

Tourism and bamboo are directly linked to one another and can even
reinforce each other. In upcoming touristical hotspots where nature is
the greatest attraction for ecological tourists often bamboo for
construction can be found (for example the Amazon rainforest). An
attractive and ecological building in bamboo will attract tourists and
because this attracts tourists it is more likely that locals will
apply bamboo as a construction material. Moreover this are both
resources that are within reach for a specific group of poor people.

We are limited in our development project because of three factors;
• Professionally we are limited to construction and tourism/marketing
because of our area of knowledge.
• Geografically we are limited to a place where a combination of
bamboo (suitable for construction) and upcoming tourism occurs.
• Practically we are limited to the number of people that can be
involved.

Sustainable development can be defined as a management of all
recources in such way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be
fulfilled while maintaining cultural

BAMBOO AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND IT'S ECOLOGICAL COMPONENT

The bamboo part of the project is to build a low-cost larger building
where a small team of local unemployed will be taught all the
necessary techniques. The construction exists mainly of two
components; several rooms that can be hired out in order to have a
self-supporting basis and a multifunctional space that can be applied
for educational purposes.
The building of the construction should be a sound and ecological
process. Not only do the building materials have to be firm and
biodegradable, there also has to be made use of an easy and simplified
construction technique without costly tools.
The building itself should have an attractive design and be of
architectural value for two reasons; to enlarge the attraction of the
economical activity (hotel) and to stimulate others to use the 'poor
man's timber' as an suitable, visually attractive and effective
building material. The building project can then extend to other
places where a same process can take place.



Fig. 2; Left; Bamboo grove in Camburi; Right; Hotel Do Frade in Angra
Dos Reis by Simon Velez

Besides the construction quality, bamboo has an enourmous ecological
quality. Even if it is not a native plant, several ecological benefits
can't be overlooked;

• In the Mata Atlantica area most grounds outside of the national
parks are subject to the danger of deforestation by burning (clearing
of the forest for cattle grazing). Where this proces has already taken
place, bamboo can serve as a soil enrichener to mineralise the
grounds, and by it's firm roots prevent the soil from erosion.

• Bamboo can absorbe polluted air. Carbon is being absorbed from the
air and stored in the bamboo. Specially near city borders where air is
already heavely polluted, bamboo can play an important role.

BACKGROUND ON BRAZIL

Brazil is the largest nation of South America and definitely an unique
case in many respects. Its size, a little over 8,5 million sq km, is
roughly equivalent to the rest of the region, while its population of
more than 160 million people is higher than that of the nine remaining
countries put together.

Brazil is also unique because it was the only country in South America
which experienced rapid economic growth during the 1970's (an average
annual GDP rate of 8,1%). During the 1980´s, however, Brazil joined
the rest of the region with a growth of 1,5%. The early 1990´s were
even more difficult years for Brazil with a hyperinflation reaching
its top in 1993. In 1994 the government introduced drastic monetary
changes and a stabilisation plan called ‘Plan Real´. The results were
encouraging however because of her great dependence on foreign capital
Brazil suffered from the Mexican financial crisis late 1994, the Azian
crisis in 1998 and the recession of the world economy in 2000
(prospects for tourism in South America). The national debt ran up
from 192 milliard real in 1994 to 708 milliard real in 2002. Under
pressure of the IMF Brazil had to carry out an extreme liberalisation
meaning eliminating all barriers to imports and privatisation of some
large government companies. President Cardoso had to cut on the
already small social expenses for the poor such as health care, social
security, education and poverty & unemployment reduction.

President Lula and its government face an enormous challenge to
improve public services, infrastructure and the educational base of
its population and to steadily decrease economical and social
inequities. Because despite of the enormous natural recourses and
richness of the country – Brazil is ranked number 13 in the world´s
largest industrial countries - there are estimated to be over 50
million Brazilians living below the poverty line. By lack of means 21
million people live in a permanent state of serious underfeeding. In
this group occurs the most infant mortality. The quality of the public
health care is low. The people with higher incomes use the
well-functioning privately owned health institutions. Public education
is of low quality and a lot of students drop out in order to earn
money for their family. Private education is of good quality but
unreachable for the poor. (11.11.11-campaign 2003).

BRAZIL - GENERAL INFORMATION
Regime: Republic
Capital: Brasília
President: Luis Inácio Lula da Silva
Area: 8,5 million km²
Population: 157 millions of inhabitants
Economically Active Population: 74 millions of inhabitants
Main export products: coffee, sugar, orange juice, soya, beef and
chicken
Mortality rate: 40/1.000 born alive
Fertility rate: 2,52 (average of 2 children per couple)
Sanitation: helps 76,2% of population
Access to the drain system: 39,5% of population
Official language: Portuguese
Alfabetism: 93% alfabetism - 7% analfabetic is about 10.990.000 people
Unemployment: 7,1 % unemployed
Race: 40% mixed race, 50% white, 6% black & indians 0,2%
Principal religion: Catholicism
Currency: Real (R$)


TOURISM AS A ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF INCOME

The tourism part of the project is to provide another (or the same)
team of local unemployed with the know-how to conduct an economical
activity in the touristical sector. The education consists of
on-the-job training and is complemented with specific courses such as
marketing, english, accounting, …. Depending on the gender of the
subjects that are taught the duration of the project may vary. A
second important part will be to attract tourists to the project, in
order to be self-sufficient and to generate a larger economic base for
the poor.
As mentioned above, bamboo is a material that can serve touristical
purposes such as the fabrication of handicrafts, furniture and the
construction of lodging. As such bamboo is an ecological material that
fits in the idea of ecotourism.

PROJECT DEFINITION

The bamboo project consists of building a structure together with
local unemployed craftsmen that can be used as accommodation for
tourists, for teaching facilities and a basis of operations, from
where the project can be directed on a self-supporting basis. This
ensures that no later (government or other) fundings will be needed
for the follow up of the project. The construction will serve as a
basis for other constructions that will provide in the housing of the
poor and the accommodation of tourists. The combination of a living
space for the poor and rooms for tourists can provide the poor with an
economical activity that will improve their financial and social
status. In this project, bamboo (preferably Guadua Agnustifolia) will
also be planted in several plantations. The climate of Ubatuba is
ideal for Guadua, since temperatures normally do not drop below 10°C
and rain is abundant. A plantation of this type of bamboo will ensure
the locals in three to four year of free construction material. One
hectare (that has to be well maintained and confined to this area by
persons that are made responsable) can produce, after it's fourth
year, enough bamboo to build five or more constructions.

WHY BAMBOO?

There are several reasons why bamboo is an essential part of this
project

• Providing in affordable and healthy housing for the poor. This
doesn´t mean that a minimalistic perspective on the level of comfort
and aesthetics will be pursued. The cost reduction that is obtained by
the use of bamboo must be partially invested on the provision of a
level in comfort and well-being. Only by providing this, bamboo
housing can escape the label of 'poor man's cottage' and stand the
comparison with brick buildings.

• Providing an economical activity in construction (job creation).

• Exploiting and promoting the benefits of bamboo:

1. Bamboo is an excellent and cheap building material. Because of
unawareness and sceptis bamboo is underestimated as an building
material. People regard bamboo as the poor man's timber, and compare
it to the constructions that the poor build for themselves without
real craftmanship. Good examples of quality architecture are needed to
restore the believe in the possibilities of this material. Also
preservation techniques have to be used, so that one can see the
durability of this material. In Rio , a step towards the good
direction has been made by the bamboo construction school led by
Celina Llerana.


2. Fig. 3; EBIOBAMBU school of Celina Llerana at Visconde de Mauia (
Rio state)

3. Bamboo is a renewable and versatile resource, characterised by its
high strength and low weight, and is easy to apply using simple tools.
As such bamboo constructions are easy to build, resilient to wind and
even earthquake forces (given the correct detailing) and readily
repairable in the event of damage. The methods, activities and tools
are often simple, straightforward and accessible to even the young and
unskilled. (bamboo in construction: an introduction; INBAR technical
report No. 16)

4. Bamboo is a good alternative to the deforestation of the Amazon
rainforest because it is an eco-friendly material and is an excellent
substitute for timber wood.

5. Bamboo as an harbinger of prosperity. A.C.LAKSHMANA, Former
secretary to Govt. of Karnataka, Bangalore has the following
hypothesis;

E1 E2 E3
F = --------------
E4
F= any type of forest (natural, artificial, rainforest, bamboo forest)
E1, E2 and E3 are economics, employment and environment/ecology.
E4 is rural poverty which is inversely proportional to forest wealth.

If poverty is greater, F (forest wealth) is smaller. In the initial
stages one should concentrate on economic gains to people. Other
objectives can be taken up later. Translated to the project in
question; economical benefits have to be found (in the use of bamboo
for tourism and affordable housing) before ecological benefits can be
found (such as the increased preservation of the rainforest because of
the diminished need for timber wood). Keeping in mind that a bamboo
forest's wealth is also depending on this formula, the forest (or
plantation) has to be maintained and managed in an economical and
ecological sound manner.

6. Bamboo is an absorber of polluted air. Carbon is being absorbed
from the air and stored in the bamboo. This process is called 'carbon
sequestration'. The Guadua plantations of a project in Costa Rica were
calculated to absorbe 17 tons of carbon per hectare per year.
(J.Janssen, 2000) This means that plantations at the border of larger
cities can provide in housing as well as in a catalyst function.
(J.Janssen, 2000). Moreover Bamboo plays a role as a means for erosion
control, riverbank protection, landslide prevention and land
rehabilitation. Bamboo's extensive network of rhizomes and root binds
the top one foot of soil, which is critical for land productivity, and
effectively resists erosion by forces of nature such as wind and
water. There are cases reported wherein bamboo was planted to
successfully prevent the erosion of a riverbank and thus protect a
village from being washed away. (J.Janssen, 2000). On this subject
carefulness is required. Prof. Eduardo Mariano Neto from the Instituto
Driades de Pesquisa e Conservação da Biodiversidade (at Ilheus)
reported in an email to the authors that often a non-native bamboo
specie can displace the native vegetation. An example was given of a
bamboo that was displacing the native vegetation along the Piracicaba
River of São Paulo State which was a serious problem to the
conservation of that native forest formation. Therefore bamboo
plantations should be organised in well-managed and confined areas.

PRESENCE OF BAMBOO

In order to determine where a good place for the bamboo part of the
project can be found, first the presence of bamboo that is suitable
for construction has to be located. The most suitable bamboo species
for construction are Guadua Agnustifolia, Dendrocalamus Giganteous,
Dendrocalamus Asper and Bambusa Vulgaris.

The highest potential species richness in America , 35 species per km²
, was recorded for a total area of 506 km² in the coastal region of
Brazil , near São Paulo . Nearly 80% (15,084,000 km² ) of the total
area of forest potentially containing bamboo has from 1 to 5 species
per km². (Potential distribution of woody bamboos in Africa and
America , INBAR Working Paper 43)

The highest diversity of bamboo can also be found in the coastal
region of Brazil ( São Paulo ) in the 'Mata Atlantica' region, where
climatic conditions are ideal for bamboo species. According to Dr.
Ximena Londoño (2001), Brazil has the greatest bamboo diversity in
Latin America . Guadua Kunth, which represents the biggest and the
most economically important genus of the New World , with species
reaching heights 30 m and culms reaching 21 cm in diameter, is
primarily an Amazonian genus with 45% of the species diversity in the
Amazon and Orinoco basins (Londoño & Judziewicz 1991).

The next most diverse area is central Brazil and eastern Bolivia with
30% of the species diversity in the "cerrado" or savanna, Species have
been found from sea level to 2200-2800m, being more abundant and
diverse at lower elevation between 0-1500 m. Bamboo occurs in
different types of habitats such as lowland tropical forests,
savannas, cerrados, gallery forests and the lower montane forests.
Uses have been reported for many of them but due to its exceptional
timber quality and natural durability, G. angustifolia Kunth is the
most useful. (Diversity and distribution of new world bamboos, the
bambuseae, Ximena Londoño INBAR Working Paper No. 8)


Fig 4; Mata Atlantica region. Light green was the original rainforest
Dark green is the rainforest nowadays Fig 5; Distribution of the genus
GUADUA in Middle and South America
However the map above with the presence of Guadua contains the entire
of Brazil , inquiries with local professionals and academics indicate
that some nuances have to be made. Guadua (being the best bamboo for
construction) indeed can be found in this entire area, but not always
in equally great amounts, and not always in the correct subspecia
(being Agnustifolia Kunth). The Mata Atlantica area, as shown above in
fig. 1, has only about 7 % of it's original surface left (different
sources indicate different percentages, but this number is never above
10 %). Since the most subspecies of bamboo are not native plants, they
are not an endangered specific type of plant from the Mata Atlantica.
This plant does however need the specific climate of a rainforest
(rainfall and high temperatures), meaning that the only sustainable
way to handle bamboo in this project is to first preserve the Mata
Atlantica rainforest. Most sources indicate that Bahia , being a
primary target of investigation for tourism, doesn't contain large
amounts of Guadua Agnustifolia. Towards the southern part of Bahia, on
the border with Rio state, there is however a presence of large woody
bamboos that are already used by landless workers, as reported to us
by Dr. Eduardo Mariano Neto from the Instituto Driades de Pesquisa e
Conservação da Biodiversidade in Ilhéus, and Reyjane Patricia de
Oliveira from the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (Dept. de
Ciências Biológicas) reported simular findings to us. On the subject
of Dendrocalamus Giganteous Dr Antonio Salgado (botanist who is expert
in bamboo) reported to us that there was a slim chance that it could
be found in Santo Amaro, near Salvador the Bahia in the plantations of
a paper factory, as would be vast areas of Bambusa Vulgaris, because
this is the species that is used by this factory. Upon contacting this
factory they however were reluctant to share these resources, and that
D. Giganteous was unknown to them. We received a similar response from
Dr. Lynn Clark (American bamboo society) who stated that at least two
species of Bambusa, B. Vulgaris and B. Tuldoides, are widely grown in
Brazil , and probably both are cultivated in Bahia . Another regular
contact is Raphael Moras de Vasconcellos, amongst others from the
Bambu-Brasileiro organisation. He had doubts about the presence of
Guadua in Bahia , but was positive that Bambusa Vulgaris was present
in Bahia (he referred to the factory in Santo Amaro as well). Raphael
is working with Bambusa Vulgaris in construction workshops in Macéio
(to the north of Bahia ) at the moment

Dr Ximena Londoño, who is known to be one of the greatest specialists
in Bamboo taxonomy, reported to us that in Bahia Guadua angustifolia
is hard to find. She reported that vast plantations of Dendrocalamus
giganteous and Guadua angustifolia are to be found in the States of
São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro , which is adjacent to the southern part
of Bahia . In order to find the correct bamboo species or construction
she advised us to direct our search for a project location towards the
'Mata Atlantica' region. Celina Llerena, who is also an architect and
is mainly involved in the teaching of construction with Bamboo in Rio
(EBIOBAMBU school), stated that Rio is the paradise of Bambusa
Vulgares and Tutoides. Because of the technical expertise in bamboo
construction Celina will be regularly contacted on the technical
aspects of the construction.

On further inquiry of the Mata Atlantica area, numerous presences of
Dendrocalamus G. such as in Angra Dos Reis (in a privately owned
plantation on which the owner also build his house with this bamboo)
and near Curitiba were found, with a fair assumption that many more
can be found.

On the prospection journey the Mata Atlantica area from just below São
Paulo till just north of Rio de Janeiro was investigated, as is
documented in the addendum. Since poverty, being the main reason for
the project, can be found nearly everywhere in Brazil in more or less
equal amounts, the factors that can differ from location to location
are tourism and bamboo. Tourism will be documented later, here only
the possibilities for bamboo in the chosen location will be explained
(for an overview, and reasons for choosing Ubatuba, please refer to
the chapters 'project location' and 'addendum')

In Ubatuba, which is a larger city right in the middle of Rio and São
Paulo , the Mata Atlantica is at it's full force. Movies about the
Amazon Rainforest are often made right here, because of the
similarities of the natural structure (and lower production costs),
dixit Sergio Carvalho, secretary of tourism in Ubatuba. Bigger B.
Vulgaris can be found everywhere in free nature, as well as (when
searched for) D. Giganteus. During our prospection trip we stumbled
upon 6 or 7 larger (and older than 4 years) bushes of what we believe
is very thick Guadua Agnustifolia at Praia da Fazenda. If not Guadua
(internodes too long for Guadua?), this certainly is very ready-to-use
Dendrocalamus Giganteus. Several Caiçaras planted them ages ago on
their property (hence the incredible thickness). They said that
someone (unknown) brought them from the African continent. (if it is
Guadua, more likely some Fransiscan missionaries that had a nearby
post brought them from the Asiatic continent).


Fig. 6 ; bamboo grove of Guadua or Dendrocalamus at Praia da Fazenda,
Ubatuba

The climate at Ubatuba is certainly right for starting a Guadua
plantation (ample rainfall and temperatures that never fall below 10°
C), that should produce the right bamboo in 4 years, bringing the
locals free building material. Probably self-treated bamboo, that can
be cut at Praia da Fazenda, will be used for he project. If this is
(due to unforseen circomstances) impossible, than ready-made and
pre-treated bamboo from the Flora Paraty at less than 25 km can be
used, while the treatment and plantation at the site is perfected for
later use by the poor. We already talked to the director of the
National Park ('Eliane Simoes 'Lica'') who wants to coöperate, and
give permission to cut bamboo from the national park (for it is not an
domestic plant to Brazil , and not protected under the national
forestry laws). She also pointed out that this project, and building
in bamboo in general should be promoted in the region, because of the
ecological nature of bamboo constructions.

TOURISM IN GENERAL

The substancial growth of tourism activity clearly marks tourism as
one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the past
century. The number of international arrivals worldwide show an
evolution from a mere 25 million international arrivals in 1950 to 664
million in 1999, corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 7%.
This despite threats of global terrorism, religious fundamentalism,
energy crisis and economic recession. Although tourism movements are
largely confined to developed nations, the developing countries are
forging ahead rapidly.

For years, tourism was characterised by concentration: geographic
concentration (15 countries, all in Western Europe and North America ,
attracted 97% of all tourists), seasonal coverage (summer) and
concentration in terms of purpose of trip (leisure - summer holidays).
Nowadays, tourism is much more diverse. Travel tends to be spread out
all over the year, there is a growing tendency for tourists to visit
new destinations ( Asia , Africa and Latin America ), together with
tourism product diversification. Despite this clear tendency towards
diversification of tourist flows, traditional pattern of tourism
behaviour are likely to endure, which means that sun and beach tourism
is still the most important segment of the market and will doubtless
maintain this status. But the tourist now wants to combine sun and
beach with sports, nature and culture (Tourism market trends: Americas
, 2000).


Fig. 14; Eco-tour in Camburi, Ubatuba

The reason tourists choose a destination is strongly influenced by the
cultural and natural environment of that location. Tourists seek safe,
clean, interesting and varied environments. Tourism depends upon the
qualities of the natural and human environment, but tourism involves a
demand for significant amounts of energy and consumption of many goods
and services. Increasingly people have become aware that without
responsible management practices, the industry can degrade the very
features on which tourism´s prosperity is based. Particularly in
sensitive environments there is a need for sustainable tourism. There
have been several initiatives of tourism developers who are
implementing environmental auditing programs such as waste management,
energy consumption, transport noise and staff training (Tourism
development in critical environments, 1999). Furthermore over the pas
few years some large ngo´s and tourism organisations such as SNV (The
Netherlands) and GTZ ( Germany ) have been developing policies and
projects to assist people in developing countries in getting their
share from tourism ( [Only registered users see links. ]).

DESCRIPTION OF THE CHOSEN LOCATION

Fig. 18 ; Above; city of Ubatuba with over 80 beaches and villages;
Below; Praia Ubatubarim, the chosen location
After the prospection journey that went from São Paulo to Rio de
Janeiro, where as been mentioned before the most obvious and largest
(preserved) amount of the Mata Atlantica rainforest is situated, the
different possibilities were examined and compared. An overview in
tables of the visited locations can be found in the 8th chapter,
Addendum. After carefull review, Ubatuba (more specific Ubatubarim)
was chosen as the best location for the project, because to us, it
scored best on the three key factors that we were looking for; poverty
(which is present everywhere in Brazil), bamboo (which only some
locations had the right kind of) and tourism (especially ecotourism,
surfing and adventurous tourism since these are the kind of tourists
that stay in places as intended in the project). For a description of
the chosen location these three factors will be clarified.

• Poverty; Poverty can be found in nearly every Brazilian city (with
an increased amount in de northeast regions, but since the lack of
bamboo this was not an option for this specific project). In Ubatuba
poverty reached a higher level than in the surrounding cities for a
very specific reason. To clarify this statement first the historic
background of Ubatuba has to be explained; Ubatuba is one of the
oldest port cities in Brazil (366 years old). With Santos becoming the
first port of the São Paulo state, the Ubatuba region began to suffer
neglect and economic decline. It wasn't untill the mid twentieth
century that Ubatuba began an new age of economic development, which
resulted in the construction of the BR101 highway between Santos ( São
Paulo ) and Rio . This highway brought in the land speculators and
tourists of São Paulo and surrounding cities. It also marked the
destruction of the Caiçara people, that have lived here since the
founding of the city four centuries ago. The Caiçara's are a mix of
different races (Euro, native Indian from Brazil and Afro from
slavery) and have lived of what the land and sea provided for them.
They have a very specific culture that is a mix of their ancestral
cultures. After the highway cut trough their homelands, land
prospectors made use of their illiteracy to trick them in to selling
bigger pieces of land than they thought, driving them out of these
properties. Then, the former gouvernement put another burden on them
by declaring most of the region a state park, prohibiting them to
plant, cultivate and harvest on what land was left to them, driving
them to the cities. Unadapted to urban life most of them failed to
start a better life here, and many returned to the places where they
used to live, even if they could barely survive here (punishments on
extracting material from the forest were and still are severe). Even
though the local environment agencies (such as the directory of the
national park Serra Do Mar) wish to help them survive, they too are
bound by rules and regulations. The government made provisions for
these 'traditional families' to be able to stay on their lands and to
continue to live as their culture taught them, but still they have to
find another means of income that can partially replace the provisions
they formerly extracted from the forest. (source; the eco-efficiency
group of Ubatuba, Sergio Carvalho, secretary of tourism Ubatuba,
'Eliane Simoes 'Lica'', director of the national park Serra Do Mar and
travel guides). In this light, our project could be of an essential
benefit to them, since bamboo (being a non-native plant) can still be
extracted from the forest and tourism is one of the only possible
means of income left to them.


Bamboo; Driving on the way from Santos towards Ubatuba, large bushes
of (thick) B. Vulgaris can be found everywhere along the way. Since
this is by far not the best bamboo for construction, we asked locals
to help us find larger bamboo such as Dendrocalamus Giganteous. On an
ecological trip trough the forests of Camburi (city of Ubatuba),
monitored by Gilson, a local guide that also is a spokesperson for the
poor from the community of Camburi, we went to a local Caiçara family
that was reported to have enormous bamboo in their garden. On arrival,
we indeed found gigantic bamboo, probably of the Dendrocalamus gender
in their garden (see photograph). Regretfully this was the only bush
that could be found in Camburi. Encouraged by this finding we went
looking further and learned that Praia Da Fazenda should also have
several similar larger bamboos. At Praia da Fazenda we were guided
around by Ted Taylor, who was active in the Eco-Efficiency group. In
the direct neighbourhood of where Ted lived (without electricity or
water) at Praia Da Fazenda, several bushes of enormously thick bamboo
were found (what we believe were Guadua or very straight and thick
Dendrocalamus, see the pictures in chapter 3; bamboo, presence of
bamboo). Ted had been cutting parts of these bushes, which caused new
and very straight culms to shoot up. 6 or 7 bushes that hold enough
bamboo for the bearing structure of the project were found on the
site. If for whatever reason these bamboos should not be usable for
the project, ready and treated can be purchased from the 'Flora
Paraty', which is located about 25 km from the location where we
intend to start our project (see 'Paraty' in chapter 8). Given the
strong growing rate and thickness of the existing bamboos in Praia Da
Fazenda, a plantation for future bamboo should not be a problem.
Fig. 19; bamboo in Camburi


Tourism; In Ubatuba, the national park Serra do Mar and the ocean with
its numerous islands along the coast attracts many tourists. Ubatuba
is a large city spread out on about 50 km coastline. Ubatuba is well
known for the surfing championhips that are held here at Praia
Vermelha. The centre is already touristically developed but the hidden
beaches and villages offer great possibilities for tourism, especially
ecotourism. Camburi and Ubatubarim are ideal villages since they are
situated at the border of the national park (ideal to organise hikes
in the jungle). They are only 20 km away from Paraty, a historical
city protected by Unesco, and 40 km away from Ubatuba centre. In
Ubatubarim there are lodges that are rented out by the
St-Franciscians. Each of the 12 lodges can contain 10 persons. The
lodges of the St-Franciscians are only rented out once or twice a
year. There exist no other sleeping facilities here. Only in nearby
villages such as Picinguabe where there are a few poussadas, and in
Camburi where there is a campsite for eco-tourists, it is possible to
stay overnight. Furthermore in Camburi there are already about 8
persons who guide tourists in the jungle. We have spoken to Gilson, a
local guide in Camburi, who has a small bar right in front of a
beautiful waterfall and who also takes tourists for rappelling from
this waterfall. Besides Gilson this job is for most of the guides only
a summerjob. Outside the high season there are only few tourists but
during the summermonths the campsite is overfull. In Ubatubarim
tourism is not as important as in Camburi, but still there are a few
locals who rent out canoes and they are also aware of the importance
of tourism as a means of income. But it is obvious that in Ubatubarim
the facilities for tourists either don´t exist yet or aren´t being
exploited well. This means that we will get the opportunity to develop
ecotourism here from scratch in coöperation with the locals.
Fig.20; waterfall in Camburi


Links

[Only registered users see links. ]

[Only registered users see links. ]



[Only registered users see links. ]

Tornello Nurseries
[Only registered users see links. ]

Association Européenne du Bambou

Big Bamboo Trading Co.
[Only registered users see links. ]

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY:

BAMBOO BRAZIL FOUNDATION
[Only registered users see links. ]
[Only registered users see links. ]

BAMBOO BRAZIL CURRENTLY ARCHIVES AVAILABLE:

Name Size Creator Created

A bamboo tourism project for Brazil - Sven Mouton.pdf
Poverty reducation, sustainable development by utilizing bamboo as a
low cost building material and employing unemployed local craftsman
96 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

Alvaro - colheres de bambu.pdf
Alvaro - Colheres de Bambu - Bamboo Spoons 325 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/03/2003

Artigos (português)
Artigos que tenham revelencia neste grupo de discussão
fundacaobambubrasil
11/01/2003

BAMBUCICLETAS.txt
BAMBUCICLETAS - by Steen Heinsen - ""Building these bicycles is art.
It is not something you just do" 5 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

BBF News - Boletim Informativo
Weekly Newsletter detailing our Activities fundacaobambubrasil
11/10/2003

BambooMatBoard.pdf.pdf
Bamboo Mat Board 122 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

BambooThematicNetwork Newsletter Nov 2002.pdf
Bamboo in Europe / Bamboo of the Americas / Flowering of Bamboo /
Guadua in Australia / Bamboo Technology Exchange / Bamboo Workshop in
Pereira Colombia 135 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

Bamboo_Photography_CBronzini.pdf
The Bamboo Art Exhibit - Carla Bronzini - International Bamboo
Festival at Fairchild Tropical Garden Oct 16 2003 40
KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

Bambooasabuildingmaterial.pdf.pdf
Bamboo as a Building Material 1886 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

Brasileiro constrói bicicletas de Bambu.doc
O bambu, quando bem utilizado, pode ser até 17% mais resistente que o
aço. 6 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

Building a Bamboo Farm.doc
Building a Bamboo Farm using principles of Permaculture Bamboo
Agroforestry - Simon Henderson (Bamboo People) 29
KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/01/2003

Compilação de Espécies no Brasil_Abril_2001.pdf
Compilado durante o curso de bambu no Centro de Pesquisa Chinesa de
Bambu (CBRC) Abril 2001 - Raphael Vasconcellos, Luciano Roitman, Prof.
Marco Pereira, e João Paglione 47 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

Entrevistas (Interviews)
Raphael Vasconcellos conducted many interviews for his website,
BambuBrasileiro.com - As entrevistas do Raphael Vasconcellos estão
disponiveis aqui, feito para o BambuBrasileiro.com
fundacaobambubrasil
11/01/2003

IAC-NOCMAT 2003 JP NOV.pdf
Inter American Conference on Non-Conventional Materials and
Technologies in Eco-Construction and Infrastructure IAC-NOCMAT 2003 -
João Pessoa, Brazil, November 13th-16th 2003 86
KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

International Bamboo Festival Miami 2003 - Speaker Details.pdf
The Meeting of the American Bamboo Society & Florida Caribbean Chapter
- Oscar Hidalgo, Mark Meckes, Tarciso Filgeurias, Ana Paula Gonçalves,
Dr. Stinger Guala, Dr. Lynn Clark, Dr. Margert Stern, and Linda
Garland 170 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

IntroBambuJan2002.pdf
Introdução ao Mundo dos Bambus - Raphael Vasconcellos
([Only registered users see links. ]) 338 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/04/2003

Manual 8p Refrigerador de Bambu.pdf
Refrigerador de Bambu - Gaiamovement.org (em Português) 80
KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/01/2003

Modernbambooarchitecture.pdf.pdf
Modern Bamboo Architecture 1359 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

O Bambu e os Desafios do Brasil - Marco Pimentel.pdf
A historia dessa planta na formação sóciocultural e econômica desses
povos admite a crença que "mais da metade da raça humana seria
completmanete diferente sem o bambu" 62 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

OscarHidalgomanual.pdf
Oscar Hidalgo - Manuel de construcción con bambu / Bamboo Construction
Manual 610 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/04/2003

Private
Foundation Documents fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

Tratamento de Colmos de Bambu sob pressão_UNICAMP.pdf
Cinthia Reis Cascardo (Bolsista PIBIC/CNPq) e Prof. Antonio Ludovico
Beraldo (Orientador) - Faculdade de Engeheria Agricola - FEAGRI -
UNICAMP 71 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003

TreatmentManual10US.pdf.pdf
VSD Treatment Manual - Vertical Soak Diffusion developed by
Environmental Bamboo Foundation & Dr. Walter Liese 1113
KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

bamboo_paper.doc
5 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

bambu o ouro verde dos chineses.txt
Bambu - O Ouro Verde dos Chineses 5 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/01/2003

manual_bahareque_bambu_guadua.pdf.pdf
Manual Bahareque Guadua 3056 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/22/2003

ufpb.br Uso do bambu como material de construção.pdf
UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA PARAÍBA - MATERIAS DE CONTRUÇÃO
NÃO-CONVENCIONAIS - USO DO BAMBU 38 KB fundacaobambubrasil
11/02/2003
Files 11111 Kb used of 20480 Kb total


Name
Type
Access Creator Size
Last Modified


Jens Johnston - Bamboo Architect in Rio
album Personal fundacaobambubrasil 3 items 1-Nov-2003

MUDAS - Bamboo Plants for Sale
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 5 items 1-Nov-2003

BAMCRUS.com.br
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 29 items 1-Nov-2003

Instituto Bambu Campinas - São Paulo
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 10 items 1-Nov-2003

Takuara Renda - Guillermo Gayo -Paraguay
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 20 items 2-Nov-2003

Instituto Agronomico de Campinas - SP
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 3 items 2-Nov-2003

Celina Llerena - EBIOBAMBU -RiodeJaneiro
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 8 items 2-Nov-2003

Bali - 1995 Bamboo Orchestra
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 1 item 2-Nov-2003

FUNBAMBU-Costa Rica 1998-CasasPopulares
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 36 items 2-Nov-2003

BAMBUCICLETAS - Flavio Deslandes
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 0 item 2-Nov-2003

Artesanatos (BrazilianBambooHandicrafts)
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 7 items 2-Nov-2003

Oficina BambuBrasileiro - Rio de Janeiro
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 60 items 3-Nov-2003

UNESP -Bauru- São Paulo - Marco Pereira
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 16 items 6-Nov-2003

Yahoo! Photo Album
album Personal bamboobrazilfoundation 1 item 7-Nov-2003

Especies - Species
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 5 items 7-Nov-2003

Sitio Vagalume - Santa Catarina - Brasil
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 7 items 8-Nov-2003

A B S Meeting Miami
album Group willpierson 7 items 10-Nov-2003

INBAMBU (Instituto do Bambu) Macéio
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 25 items 10-Nov-2003

Instrumentos
album Group caumelo 47 items 27-Nov-2003

Morisco - Indonesian Bamboo Building
album Group fundacaobambubrasil 7 items 1-Dec-2003

Curso Prof.Oscar Hidalgo
album Group caumelo 0 item 11-Dec-2003

Bookmarks

Name Creator

Discussion Groups
YAHOO! Groups Discussion about various aspects of bamboo
fundacaobambubrasil


India - Bamboo & Technology Centres
Many great sources fundacaobambubrasil

B A M B U B R A S I L E I R O
Produtos e serviços da oficina BambuBrasileiro sediado no Rio de
Janeiro,(cortinas/forrações/grades/móveis/...), Panorama geral Sobre
as características e utilizações desta planta por povos do mundo.
Panorama geral Sobre as características e utilizações desta planta por
povos do mundo. Entrevistas, Venda de Mudas
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

BAMBUBRASIL.ORG - O PORTAL DO BAMBU NO BRASIL
Fundação BambuBrasil - Brazilian Bamboo Foundation - Informações,
Eventos, Cursos, Palestras, Emails, Discussões, Galerias de Fotos
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

Bambú de las Américas [BOTA]
Mientras nosotros plantamos y gozamos de nuestro bambú preferido,
muchas especies nativas de bambúes americanos son ignoradas y
destruidas en su mismo país de origen. Recientemente, en mi visita a
México, observé las diferentes formas en que el hábitat del bambú se
esta destruyendo. Las comunidades rurales están expandiéndose hacia
las montañas en busca de tierras de cultivo y se ven en la necesidad
de limpiar el terreno para realizar sus actividades agrícolas, las
cuales están destruyendo la vegetación natural. Esto ocasiona que las
poblaciones naturales de bambú estén expuestas o incluso estén en
peligro de desaparecer de su hábitat
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

EGrupo Bambu-Brasil
O grupo Bambu Brasil de discussão sobre bambu por Internet é um
E-Grupo, e funciona a base de mensagens eletrônicas (emails). Quando
alguém envia uma mensagem para [Only registered users see links. ], todos os
membros inscritos no grupo recebem a mesma mensagem.E assim os membros
vão respondendo mensagens postadas, colocando novas questões em outras
mensagens e assim por diante. O Bambu-Brasil é um EGrupo baseado nos
servidores da empresa americana YAHOO, , é um serviço gratuito, e
portanto livre de taxas. O EGrupo Bambu-Brasil é público (i.e. aberto
a qualquer interessado) e as mensagens não passam por censura prévia.
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

ENVIRONMENTAL BAMBOO FOUNDATION
The International Bamboo Foundation a, 501(c)3 and the Environmental
Bamboo Foundation of Indonesia were both founded by Linda Garland, an
international designer and environmentalist who has made her home in
Indonesia for over 20 years.
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

Grupo BambuBrasil - Entrevistas
Angel e Mariana Sampedro del Rio Artesanos Español julho de 2000,
Junji Kagata Enterpreneur English julho de 2000, Melanie Arcudi Doctor
English julho de 2000, Tarciso S. Filgueiras Botânico Português
janeiro de 2001, Jorge Morán Ubidia Arquiteto Español fevereiro de
2001, Marco Antônio dos Reis Pereira Engenheiro Agrícola Português
fevereiro de 2001, De Vos Joris Enterpreneur English fevereiro de
2001, Lynn G. Clark Bamboo Taxonomist English março de 2001, Ximena
Londoño de Pava Botanist / Guadua specialist / taxonomist Español
abril de 2001
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

MUDAS DE BAMBU Á VENDA - SAINDO DE BAURU, SÃO PAULO [UNESP]
Mudas de um ano de idade, em saco plástico, Preço: R$ 10,00 a unidade,
Frete: saindo de Bauru - SP, à parte, encomendas com
[Only registered users see links. ]
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

Mark Mortimer - Bamboo Furniture, Fences
Móveis e cercas de bambu do Mark Mortimer [New Zealand]
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

UNESP - Bauru - Marco Pereira Personal Page
Why Bamboo? Characteristics of Culms, Uses, and General Overview
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil

Venda de Apostila - "BAMBU - Espécies, Características e Aplicações"
Este estudo decorre de sua intensa investigação sobre o bambu em mais
de dez anos de pesquisa, e após a publicação de sua apostila sobre
irrigação com bambus. Perfeita para quem quer começar a estudar,
plantar e conhecer o bambu. O sumário da apostila, que contém 56
páginas e fotos explicativas, é o seguinte: Introdução, Histórico e
Generalidades, A Planta, Características dos colmos, Colheita dos
colmos, Espécies de bambu, Reprodução de bambu, Tratamento dos colmos,
Aplicações, Bambu na Internet, Bibliografia - Valor: 30 reais
[Only registered users see links. ]
fundacaobambubrasil
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