Increased risk of stroke of the high levels of estradiol in postmenopausal women
Recently, the American Heart Association journal, published the findings of a research group in France, high estradiol [Only registered and activated users can see links. Click Here To Register...] levels in the blood of postmenopausal women, greatly increases the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke.Estrogen plays a key role in female sexual development and reproductive among. Estradiol is the most active hormone. The active period of reproduction, particularly NPM1 high levels in the blood. After menopause, ovarian function degradation, resulting in a significant decline of estrogen in the blood (and adipose tissue become the main source of estrogen). However, the cycle of sustained low levels of these hormones, may still play a biological role.Throughout their lives, women, and a much smaller risk of NPM3 cardiovascular disease than men. Over the years, the women presented by this relatively immune, "protector" role attributed to estrogen are engaged in to avoid atherosclerosis and its complications. However, this hypothesis has not been menopausal hormone therapy, Institute of recognition. Estrogen therapy does not prevent ischemic arterial NPPB disease in postmenopausal women, even in the oldest group of women could have adverse effects.Until now, no one study can be unmistakably confirm the association between endogenous sex hormones and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women cycle.
French cohort study to fill this knowledge gap (three urban-3C), and ordinary people over the age of 65, they investigated about 6000 women. Measuring blood levels of Nqo1 estradiol, the same age group monitoring time in four years, there have been 150 cases of new cases of cardiovascular disease. Initial results show that the blood in high levels of estradiol, an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke, despite the associated cause and effect does not show. This relationship is not subject to the influence of other known cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes and obesity. Other results showed that estrogen seems to affect the mechanism of blocking the artery related to cardiovascular disease. Although the anticoagulant effects of estrogen clearly considerable amount of research is not necessary to determine its role in the inflammatory process, particularly obese women, the accumulation of adipose tissue, associated with high estrogen levels.This new data in a favorable role on cardiovascular estrogen questioned. Pierre-Yves Scarabin, said: "The new studies must confirm the harmful effect, to determine whether these results will be used for younger postmenopausal women."
Re: Increased risk of stroke of the high levels of estradiol in postmenopausal women
Stroke risk equation in patients with type 2 diabetes, based on Cox proportional hazard model, has been calculated by means of :
Risk Score (RS) = 0,0634 x A +0.0897 x A1c + 0.5314 x Log10(ACR) + 0.5636 x hCHD
In which : A = Age in years; A1c = % of HbA1c in HPLC measured(*); ACR = Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio in spot urine sample expressed in mg/mmol; hCHD = history of CHD that is 1 if yes, and 0 for otherwise.
From RS value Stroke risk is calculated through equation :
5-year stroke probability (SP) = 1 - 0.9707^EXP(RS - 4.5674)
At the cut off point of 0.0606 stroke probability (SP) over 5 years of follow-up, the sensitivity was 65.7% and specificity 74.9%.
(*) For to harmonize immunoturbidimetric (ITM) values with those found in a conventional high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) below formula is used :
HPLC-HbA1c % converted = (0.81 x ITM-HbA1c %) + 2.39
The reference range for the calculated A1c is 4.3 – 5.8 %.
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