| | Re: AFP Antibody
The AFPs are single-chain glycoproteins with molecular masses ranging from 66 to 72 kDa, considered tumor-associated fetal protein and classified as a member of a three-domain albuminoid gene family that currently consists of four members : albumin (ALB), vitamin-D binding protein (DBP), AFPs, and alfa-albumin (alfa-ALB). The detectability of AFPs during ontogeny precedes the detectability of ALB by a considerable period of time. Similarly to serum albumin (sALB), serum alfa-fetoproteins (sAFPs) is known to bind and transport a multitude of ligands, including bilirubin, fatty acids, retinoids, steroids, heavy metals, dyes, flavonoids, phytoestrogens, dioxins, and various organic drugs. Unlike ALB, high concentrations of hydrophobic ligands (i.e., fatty acids, estrogens) have been reported to induce an irreversible conformational change in the tertiary structure of AFPs. It would seem that shock/stress-induced conformational (variant) forms of this fetal protein influence, modify, or contribute as dual regulators of growth, capable of both enhancement and inhibition of growth, in cancer as well as fetal cells. The discovery of the growth regulatory properties of AFPs, makes becoming this fetal protein represents an resource for the armamentarium of biological therapeutics such as entire AFP molecule or as small amino acid fragments which diverse biological properties has been also elucidated. Lastly, the immunoassay methods developed for AFP peptides, that use monoclonal antibodies, who react against various AFP isoforms, present in postnatal and adult life. However, remain still uncertain whether the 70-kDa form that we presently measure is indeed the major adult form of AFPs.