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Antibody Forum Antibody Forum. Ask and discuss antibody suppliers, antibody related techniques and protocols, and antibody production such as using phage display libraries.


Antibodies in human body

Antibodies in human body - Antibody Forum

Antibodies in human body - Antibody Forum. Ask and discuss antibody suppliers, antibody related techniques and protocols, and antibody production such as using phage display libraries.


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  #1  
Old 05-07-2009, 04:54 AM
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Default Antibodies in human body



in our body what type of antobodies are formed monoclonal or polyclonal or both. How they are produced what is their mechanism of action?
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  #2  
Old 05-10-2009, 11:12 AM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

monoclonal antibody is only recognise one epitope,polyclonal antibody is composed of many different monoclonal antibody.so it can recognise many different epitopes.any type of antibody can form them,but usually is IgG,which's affinity is more strong.
B cell ,which are activated by foreign material,secrete the antibody protins.
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Old 09-18-2009, 09:20 AM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

Monoclonal antibody is one of polyclonal antibodies.
OR
Polyclonal antibody is actually a mixture of monoclonal antibodies.
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  #4  
Old 09-21-2009, 03:38 PM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

The immune system reacts against antigen (foreign molecule) in "adaptive way" through humoral and cellular paths. In humoral action type, the immune system react, against foreign, by means soluble components (antibodies) present in extracellular fluids.
In antibody production process, specialized macrophage called APC (antigen presenting cell), before phagocytize antigen and after, by means lysosomal enzymes, disrupt his (e.g. bacterial disgregation in components: membrane, DNA, RNA, ribosomal, etc..), first in small components and next in very small component (paratope). Every paratope is fixed on external membrane surface of the APC in such way that can be seen well, by the outside, a dwarfish area of the paratope, called “epitope”. Each epitope touched and read by a virgin B lymphocyte, that never come to contact with antigens, becoming B activated lymphocyte (primed cell) for one and only of the several epitopes expressed on the APC membrane. B activated lymphocyte goes toward to series of mitotic divisions during which it occurs a DNA rearrangement that conducts to obtainment an group of lymphocytes (plasma cell clone) everybody producing just and specifically an antibody, coming from an only clone (monoclonal antibody), adapted (high avidity) only at the epitope what has been generated it (key-lock). Next at foreign particle clearance from body, primed B cell form an pool of memory cells (resting state) that respond to a secondary challenge with the same antigen (resting lymphocyte). The elimination of the antigen to be effective for antibody path, requires production of many different antibodies by many different B cells against different epitopes of the same antigen (polyclonal response). Although the polyclonal response confers advantages on the immune system, in particular, greater probability of reacting against pathogens.
I concern to the specificity of the antibody produced, in vivo, by a B lymphocyte clone, this can be divided in two types : a) antibodies specific for a given antigen (monoreactive); b) antibodies with the ability to bind more that three antigen (polyreactive). Experiment performed with 600 human monoclonal antibodies derived from patients with monoclonal gammopathies and other immunoproliferative disorders gave comparable results. Approximately only 5 % of the monoclonal components were found to be polyreactive.
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Old 06-17-2010, 10:11 AM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

The immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. In most cases, the immune system keeps people healthy and prevents infections. But sometimes, problems with the immune system can lead to illness and infection.

A foreign substance that invades the body is called an antigen. When an antigen is detected, several types of cells work together to recognize and respond to it. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce antibodies. Antibodies and their responding antigens fit together like a key and a lock.

Regards
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  #6  
Old 09-08-2010, 07:16 AM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

Immune system plays vital role in our body. It is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day.Weakness in immune system can lead to illness and infection.
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Old 09-08-2010, 07:21 AM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

Immune system plays key role in body functioning. Natural immunity includes things like our skin or other organs that create a barrier between our insides and the infectious outside world. Another type of barrier is a secretion like a tear or mucous.These are sloughed off and takes the infectious agent with it.
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  #8  
Old 09-08-2010, 06:08 PM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

Quote:
Originally Posted by Zagami View Post
In antibody production process, specialized macrophage called APC (antigen presenting cell)
I bet you mean dendritic cell. Macrophages don't act as antigen presenting cells for B cells, since neither B cells migrate to tissue where macrophages are nor macrophages migrate to lymph nodes where B cells are. Also, B cells are APC themselves, they can present antigen to both naive and activated T cells. The latter is done to acomplish the process of isotype change, which allow B cells to secrete other Ig different from IgM.
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Old 01-21-2011, 12:51 PM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

Dendritic cells are generated by the expansion of proliferating precursors found in the peripheral blood such as adherent PBMC or elutriated monocytic fractions cultured (for 7-10 days with GM-CSF (50 ng/ml) and IL-4 (20 ng/ml). These dendritic cells have the characteristic phenotype of immature cells (expression of CD1, CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC class II antigens). Treatment with activating factors, such as TNF-α, causes a rapid change in surface phenotype (increased expression of MHC class I and II, costimulatory and adhesion molecules, downregulation of FCγRII, upregulation of CD83). These changes correlate with increased antigen-presenting capacity and with functional maturation of the dendritic cells. This cells treated for 1-3 days with D-SLAM (Dendritic Enriched Secreted Lymphocyte Activation Molecule) or LPS generate cytokines, in particular IL-12, important in the initiation of T-cell dependent immune responses. IL-12 strongly influences the development of Th-1 helper T-cell immune response, and induces cytotoxic T and NK cell function. Phenotypically, human DC are distinguished by their expression of CD1a and CD11c. CD4+CD1a+CD11chigh and CD4+CD1a-CD11clow comprise the conventional myeloid lineage human DC while the lymphoid pDC lineage consists of CD4+CD1a-CD11c- cells. Though these distinct subsets of DC have been clearly defined in humans, it should be noted that DC exhibit great plasticity, and it is possible that these cells may exist as a continuum of cell types rather than as separate entities. Three major families of cell surface antigens can be identified on monocytes : adhesion molecules, molecules involved in antigen presentation, and Fc receptor. Modulation of the expression of MHC class II antigens and other costimulatory molecules, such as B7 and ICAM-1, may result in changes in the antigen presenting capacity of monocytes and ability to induce T cell activation. Increase expression of Fc receptors may correlate with improved monocyte cytotoxic activity, cytokine release and phagocytosis. Human peripheral blood monocytes progressively lose viability when cultured in absence of serum or other stimuli. Their death results from internally regulated process (apoptosis). Addition to the culture of activating factors, such as TNF-α (100 ng/ml) dramatically improves cell survival and prevents DNA fragmentation. In addition, B cells progenitor (CD45R-CD19+) and even some mature B cells, can be source of macrophage, in which PU.1 (ets family transcription factor), required for the development of multiple lineages of the immune system, at different concentrations regulate the development of B lymphocytes as compared with macrophages. A low concentration of PU.1 protein induces the B cell fate, whereas a high concentration promotes macrophage differentiation and blocks B cell development. For as stated above, I confirm as tells in my mail "specialized macrophage" for indicate a particular phagocyte cell with anatomical and functional characteristics of “macrophage-like” monocytes- or B cell-derived. From monocytes line (CD11c+, CD13+, CD33+, CD14+) of the peripheral blood (blood precursor) originate the macrophages (in presence of M-CSF), Interstitial Dendritic Cell (IDC) in presence of GM-CSF/IL-4/TNF-α, and dendritic cell of the Langherans (LDC) phenomenon observed in the repopulation of the cutaneous LDCs after phlogosis, by circulating monocytes. IDCs are the professional APC that present antigen and induce B cell differentiation, but also happens through the interaction macrophage-B cell, for the B cell activation to answer at polysaccharide thymic independent antigen. Particularly, macrophage present antigen at B cell when antigen, by itself, not is able to activate directly B cell. Recently, utilizing multiphoton intravital microscopy on lymph nodes, has been observed that macrophages of the mouse lymph node subcapsular sinus facilitate B cell activation in vivo by collecting and displaying native antigen. In last, but not list, interstitial DCs monocytes-derived it’s only the able to induce the differentiation of naive B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells.
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  #10  
Old 01-21-2011, 10:01 PM
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Default Re: Antibodies in human body

I meant no offense with my above post. What I state is the way is shown in Immunology books. Although, those books overpass some specialized mechanisms like the one you mention. Thanks for the info Zagami.
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